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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q
x QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended April 2, 2023
OR
o TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from__________to __________
Enovix Corporation
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Charter)
(Successor to RODGERS SILICON VALLEY ACQUISITION CORP.)
Delaware001-3975385-3174357
(State or Other Jurisdiction
of Incorporation)
(Commission
File Number)
(IRS Employer
Identification No.)
3501 W Warren Avenue
Fremont, California 94538
(Address of Principal Executive Offices) (Zip Code)
(510) 695-2350
(Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class Trading
Symbol(s)
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per shareENVX
The Nasdaq Global Select Market
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerxAccelerated filero
Non-accelerated fileroSmaller reporting companyo
Emerging growth companyo
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No x
As of May 1, 2023, 158,160,110 shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, were issued and outstanding.



Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Page
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as of April 2, 2023 and January 1, 2023



Table of Contents

FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). The statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q that are not purely historical are forward-looking statements. Our forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements regarding our or our management’s expectations, hopes, beliefs, intentions or strategies regarding the future. In addition, any statements that refer to projections, forecasts or other characterizations of future events or circumstances, including any underlying assumptions, are forward-looking statements. The words “anticipates,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “possible,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “would” and similar expressions may identify forward-looking statements, but the absence of these words does not mean that a statement is not forward-looking. Forward-looking statements in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q may include, for example, statements about our:
ability to build and scale our advanced silicon-anode lithium-ion battery, our production and commercialization timeline;
ability to meet milestones and deliver on our objectives and expectations, the implementation and success of our products, technologies, business model and growth strategy, various addressable markets, market opportunity and the expansion of our customer base;
ability to meet the expectations of new and current customers, our ability to achieve market acceptance for our products;
financial performance, including revenue, expenses and projections thereof;
ability to convert our revenue funnel to purchase orders and revenue;
placement of equipment orders for our next-generation manufacturing lines, the speed of and space requirements for our next-generation manufacturing lines relative to our existing lines at Fab 1 in Fremont;
factory sites and related considerations, including site selection, location and timing of build-out, and benefits thereof; and
ability to attract and hire additional service providers, the strength of our brand, the build-out of additional production lines, our ability to optimize our manufacturing process, our future product development and roadmap and the future demand for our lithium-ion battery solutions.
The forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q are based on our current expectations and beliefs concerning future developments and their potential effects on us. There can be no assurance that future developments affecting us will be those that we have anticipated. These forward-looking statements involve a number of risks, uncertainties (some of which are beyond our control) or other assumptions that may cause actual results or performance to be materially different from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, those described in Part II, Item 1A. “Risk Factors” of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should any of our assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may vary in material respects from those projected in these forward-looking statements. We undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.






Table of Contents

PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1. Financial Statements
ENOVIX CORPORATION
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In thousands, except share and par value amounts)
(Unaudited)
April 2, 2023January 1,
2023
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents $293,751 $322,851 
Accounts receivable, net21 170 
Inventory815 634 
Deferred contract costs 800 800 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets 5,857 5,193 
Total current assets 301,244 329,648 
Property and equipment, net 102,275 103,868 
Operating lease, right-of-use assets 6,205 6,133 
Other assets, non-current 881 937 
Total assets $410,605 $440,586 
Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable $4,751 $7,077 
Accrued expenses 8,685 7,089 
Accrued compensation 10,400 8,097 
Deferred revenue 350 50 
Other liabilities 916 716 
Total current liabilities 25,102 23,029 
Warrant liability61,920 49,080 
Operating lease liabilities, non-current 8,010 8,234 
Deferred revenue, non-current 3,424 3,724 
Other liabilities, non-current 38 92 
Total liabilities 98,494 84,159 
Commitments and Contingencies (Note 7)
Stockholders’ equity:
Common stock, $0.0001 par value; authorized shares of 1,000,000,000; issued and outstanding shares of 158,089,463 and 157,461,802 as of April 2, 2023 and January 1, 2023, respectively
16 15 
Preferred stock, $0.0001 par value; authorized shares of 10,000,000; no shares issued or outstanding as of April 2, 2023 and January 1, 2023, respectively
  
Additional paid-in-capital 770,472 741,186 
Accumulated deficit (458,377)(384,774)
Total stockholders’ equity 312,111 356,427 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity $410,605 $440,586 
See accompanying notes to these condensed consolidated financial statements.
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ENOVIX CORPORATION
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(In thousands, except share and per share amounts)
(Unaudited)
Quarters Ended
April 2, 2023April 3, 2022
Revenue $21 $ 
Cost of revenue12,248 515 
Gross margin(12,227)(515)
Operating expenses:
Research and development 23,749 12,731 
Selling, general and administrative 27,274 11,869 
Total operating expenses 51,023 24,600 
Loss from operations (63,250)(25,115)
Other income (expense):
Change in fair value of convertible preferred stock warrants and common stock warrants(12,840)67,800 
Interest income, net2,466 24 
Other income (expense), net 21 (2)
Total other income (expense), net (10,353)67,822 
Net income (loss) and comprehensive income (loss)$(73,603)$42,707 
Net income (loss) per share, basic$(0.47)$0.28 
Weighted average number of common shares outstanding, basic155,626,977 151,648,439 
Net loss per share, diluted$(0.47)$(0.16)
Weighted average number of common shares outstanding, diluted155,626,977 153,338,462 
See accompanying notes to these condensed consolidated financial statements.
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Table of Contents

ENOVIX CORPORATION
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(In thousands, except share amounts)
(Unaudited)
Common Stock Additional Paid-in CapitalAccumulated Deficit Total Stockholders' Equity
Shares Amount
Balance as of January 1, 2023157,461,802 $15 $741,186 $(384,774)$356,427 
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options86,654 — 328 — 328 
Early exercised stock options vested— 1 82 — 83 
RSUs vested, net of shares withheld for taxes679,606 — (777)— (777)
Repurchase of unvested restricted common stock(138,599)— — — — 
Stock-based compensation— — 29,653 — 29,653 
Net loss— — — (73,603)(73,603)
Balance as of April 2, 2023158,089,463 $16 $770,472 $(458,377)$312,111 
Common Stock
Additional
Paid-in
Capital
Accumulated
Deficit
Total
Stockholders' Equity
Shares Amount
Balance as of January 2, 2022152,272,287 $15 $659,254 $(333,152)$326,117 
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options91,910 — 200 — 200 
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of common stock warrants4,126,466 — 47,452 — 47,452 
Early exercised stock option vested— — 42 — 42 
RSUs vested34,941 — — — — 
Repurchase of unvested restricted common stock(105,886)— — — — 
Stock-based compensation— — 4,536 — 4,536 
Net income— — — 42,707 42,707 
Balance as of April 3, 2022156,419,718 $15 $711,484 $(290,445)$421,054 
See accompanying notes to these condensed consolidated financial statements.
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Table of Contents

ENOVIX CORPORATION
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(In thousands)
(Unaudited)
Quarters Ended
April 2, 2023April 3, 2022
Cash flows from operating activities:
Net income (loss)$(73,603)$42,707 
Adjustments to reconcile net income (loss) to net cash used in operating activities
Depreciation3,455 314 
Amortization of right-of-use assets143 134 
Stock-based compensation29,157 5,238 
Changes in fair value of convertible preferred stock warrants and common stock warrants12,840 (67,800)
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable149  
Inventory(181) 
Prepaid expenses and other assets364 (51)
Deferred contract costs 8 
Accounts payable(1,792)(959)
Accrued expenses and compensation3,858 555 
Other liabilities(1)165 
Net cash used in operating activities(25,611)(19,689)
Cash flows from investing activities:
Purchase of property and equipment(3,032)(10,451)
Net cash used in investing activities(3,032)(10,451)
Cash flows from financing activities:
Proceeds from exercise of common stock warrants, net 52,828 
Payroll tax payments for shares withheld upon vesting of RSUs(777) 
Proceeds from the exercise of stock options329 200 
Repurchase of unvested restricted common stock(9)(3)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities(457)53,025 
Change in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash(29,100)22,885 
Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash, beginning of period322,976 385,418 
Cash and cash equivalents, and restricted cash, end of period$293,876 $408,303 
Supplemental cash flow data (Non-cash):
Purchase of property and equipment included in liabilities4,740 1,510 
See accompanying notes to these condensed consolidated financial statements.
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ENOVIX CORPORATION
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS (Continued)
(In thousands)
(Unaudited)
The following presents the Company’s cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash by category in the Company’s Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets:
Quarters Ended
April 2, 2023April 3, 2022
Cash and cash equivalents$293,751 $408,178 
Restricted cash included in prepaid expenses and other current assets125 125 
Total cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash$293,876 $408,303 
See accompanying notes to these condensed consolidated financial statements.
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Table of Contents
ENOVIX CORPORATION
NOTES TO THE CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)
Note 1. Organization and Basis of Presentation
Organization
Enovix Corporation (“Enovix” or the “Company”) was incorporated in Delaware in 2006. The Company designs, develops, manufactures and commercializes next generation Lithium-ion, or Li-ion, battery cells that significantly increase the amount of energy density and storage capacity relative to conventional battery cells. Our batteries’ mechanical design, or “architecture,” allows us to use high performance chemistries while enabling safety and charge time advantages. The Company is headquartered in Fremont, California.
Prior to the second quarter of 2022, the Company was focused on the development and commercialization of its silicon-anode lithium-ion batteries. Beginning in the second quarter of 2022, the Company commenced its planned principal operations of commercial manufacturing and began its production of silicon-anode lithium-ion batteries or battery pack products, as well as generating product revenue in addition to service revenue from its engineering service contracts for the development of silicon-anode lithium-ion battery technology.
Note 2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation and Consolidation
The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements are presented in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”). The condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
The Company did not have any other comprehensive income or loss for the periods presented. Accordingly, net income (loss) and comprehensive income (loss) are the same for the periods presented. Additionally, the Company did not have any income tax expenses for the periods presented.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
The Company has incurred operating losses and negative cash flows from operations since its inception through April 2, 2023 and expects to incur operating losses for the foreseeable future. As of April 2, 2023, the Company had a working capital of $276.1 million and an accumulated deficit of $458.4 million. In April 2023, we closed a $172.5 million convertible debenture to fund the Company’s second generation (“Gen 2”) production line (“Gen 2 Autoline”) 2, 3 and 4 in a second manufacturing facility (“Fab 2”) building in Malaysia. For the convertible debenture, please refer to Note 12 “Subsequent Events” for more details.
Based on the anticipated spending, the Company currently expects that its cash will be sufficient to meet its funding requirements over the next twelve months. Going forward, the Company may require additional financing for its future operations and expansion. The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared assuming the Company will continue as a going concern, which contemplates the realization of assets and satisfaction of liabilities in the normal course of business.
Unaudited Interim Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
The Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet as of April 2, 2023, the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations, Condensed Consolidated Statements of Changes in Shareholders’ equity and the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the fiscal quarters ended April 2, 2023 and April 3, 2022 are unaudited. These accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared pursuant to the rules and regulations of the SEC for interim financial reporting. In the opinion of management, these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements reflect all adjustments, consisting of normal recurring items, considered necessary to present fairly the Company’s financial condition, results of operations, stockholders’ equity and cash flows for the periods presented above. The results of operations for the fiscal quarter ended April 2, 2023 are not necessarily indicative of the operating results for the full year, and therefore should not be relied upon as an indicator of future results. The Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet as of
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Table of Contents
ENOVIX CORPORATION
NOTES TO THE CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Continued)
(Unaudited)
January 1, 2023 included herein was derived from the audited consolidated financial statements as of that date and the accompanying consolidated financial statements and related notes are included in the Annual Report.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities in the condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes during the reporting periods. Estimates and assumptions include but are not limited to: depreciable lives for property and equipment, the valuation allowance on deferred tax assets, assumptions used in stock-based compensation, incremental borrowing rate for operating right-of-use assets and lease liabilities, and estimates to fair value common stock warrants. Management bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other market-specific and relevant assumptions that it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances. In the preparation of our condensed consolidated financial statements, the Company has considered potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on its critical and significant accounting estimates. There was no significant impact to its condensed consolidated financial statements. The Company will continue to evaluate the nature and extent of the potential impacts to its business and its condensed consolidated financial statements.
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
There has been no update to the significant accounting policies disclosed in Note 2 “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies,” of the notes to the consolidated financial statements for the fiscal year ended January 1, 2023 included in the Annual Report.
Note 3. Fair Value Measurement
The fair value of the Company’s financial assets and liabilities are determined in accordance with the fair value hierarchy established in Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 820, Fair Value Measurements, issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board. The fair value hierarchy of ASC 820 requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs when measuring fair value and classifies those inputs into three levels:
Level 1:Observable inputs, such as quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities at the measurement date.
Level 2:Observable inputs, other than Level 1 prices, such as quoted prices in active markets for similar assets and liabilities, quoted prices in markets that are not active, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.
Level 3:Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities.
The Company's financial instruments consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable and the warrant liabilities. Cash and cash equivalents are reported at their respective fair values on the Company's Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. The following table details the fair value measurements of assets and liabilities that were measured at fair value on a recurring basis based on the following three-tiered fair value hierarchy per ASC 820, Fair Value Measurement, as of April 2, 2023 and January 1, 2023 (in thousands).
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ENOVIX CORPORATION
NOTES TO THE CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Continued)
(Unaudited)
Fair Value Measurement using
Level 1Level 2Level 3Total
Fair Value
As of April 2, 2023
Liabilities:
Private Placement Warrants$ $ $61,920 $61,920 
As of January 1, 2023
Assets:
Money Market Funds$319,946 $ $ $319,946 
Liabilities:  
Private Placement Warrants$ $ $49,080 $49,080 
The Company’s liabilities are measured at fair value on a non-recurring basis, including 6,000,000 warrants that were held by Rodgers Capital, LLC (the “Sponsor”) and certain of its members (the “Private Placement Warrants”). The fair value of the Private Placement Warrants is considered a Level 3 valuation and is determined using the Black-Scholes valuation model. As of April 2, 2023, the fair value of the Private Placement Warrants was $10.32 per share with an exercise price of $11.50 per share. The following tables summarize the changes for Level 3 items measured at fair value on a recurring basis using significant unobservable inputs (in thousands).
Private Placement Warrants
Fair value as of January 1, 2023
$49,080 
Change in fair value12,840 
Fair value as of April 2, 2023
$61,920 
Private Placement Warrants
Fair value as of January 2, 2022
$124,260 
Change in fair value(67,800)
Fair value as of April 3, 2022
$56,460 
The following table summarizes the key assumptions used for determining the fair value of the Private Placement warrants.
Private Placement Warrants Outstanding as of April 2, 2023Private Placement Warrants Outstanding as of January 1, 2023
Expected term (in years)3.33.5
Expected volatility97.5%92.5%
Risk-free interest rate3.8%4.2%
Expected dividend rate0.0%0.0%
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ENOVIX CORPORATION
NOTES TO THE CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Continued)
(Unaudited)
Note 4. Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is computed on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets. Property and equipment as of April 2, 2023 and January 1, 2023, consisted of the following (in thousands).
April 2, 2023January 1,
2023
Machinery and equipment$64,588 $55,694 
Office equipment and software1,739 1,586 
Furniture and fixtures829 771 
Leasehold improvements25,357 24,565 
Construction in process25,233 33,268 
Total property and equipment117,746 115,884 
Less: accumulated depreciation(15,471)(12,016)
Property and equipment, net$102,275 $103,868 
The following table summarizes the depreciation and amortization expenses related to property and equipment, which are recorded within cost of revenue, research and development expense and selling, general and administrative expense in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations (in thousands).
Quarters Ended
April 2, 2023April 3, 2022
Depreciation expense$3,455 $314 
Note 5. Inventory
Inventory consists of the following components (in thousands).
April 2, 2023January 1,
2023
Raw materials$702 $481 
Work-in-process70 106 
Finished goods43 47 
Total inventory$815 $634 
Note 6. Leases
The Company leases its headquarters, engineering and manufacturing space in Fremont, California under a single non-cancelable operating lease, right of use asset with an expiration date of August 31, 2030. In March 2021, the Company entered into a new agreement to lease office space in Fremont, California under a non-cancelable operating lease that expires in April 2026 with an option to extend for five years.
The components of lease costs were as follows (in thousands):
Quarters Ended
April 2, 2023April 3, 2022
Operating lease cost$411 $420 
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ENOVIX CORPORATION
NOTES TO THE CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Continued)
(Unaudited)
Supplemental lease information:
As of
Operating leasesApril 2, 2023January 1, 2023
Weighted-average remaining lease term7.4 years7.7 years
Weighted-average discount rate6.8%6.8%
Supplemental cash flow information related to leases are as follows (in thousands):
Quarters Ended
April 2, 2023April 3, 2022
Cash paid for amounts included in the measurement of lease liabilities:
Operating cash flows from operating leases$346 $336 
Maturities of Lease Liabilities
The following is a schedule of maturities of lease liabilities as of April 2, 2023 (in thousands).
Operating lease
2023 (remaining nine months)$1,059 
20241,449 
20251,492 
20261,491 
20271,513 
Thereafter4,262 
Total11,266 
Less: imputed interest(2,396)
Present value of lease liabilities$8,870 
Note 7. Commitments and Contingencies
Purchase Commitments
As of April 2, 2023 and January 1, 2023, the Company’s commitments included approximately $81.9 million and $22.7 million, respectively, of the Company’s open purchase orders and contractual obligations that occurred in the ordinary course of business, including commitments with contract manufacturers and suppliers for which the Company has not received the goods or services, commitments for capital expenditures and construction-related activities for which the Company has not received the services. Although open purchase orders are considered enforceable and legally binding, the terms generally allow the Company the option to cancel, reschedule, and adjust its requirements based on its business needs prior to the delivery of goods or performance of services. For lease obligations, please refer to Note 6 “Leases” for more details.
Performance Obligations
As of April 2, 2023, the Company had $3.8 million of performance obligations, which comprised of total deferred revenue and customer order deposits. The Company currently expects to recognize approximately 9% of deferred revenue as revenue within the next twelve months.
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ENOVIX CORPORATION
NOTES TO THE CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Continued)
(Unaudited)
Litigation
From time to time, the Company is involved in a variety of claims, lawsuits, investigations, and proceedings relating to securities laws, product liability, intellectual property, commercial, insurance, contract disputes, employment, and other matters. Certain of these lawsuits and claims are described in further detail below. The Company intends to defend vigorously against all of the following allegations.
A liability and related charge to earnings are recorded in the condensed consolidated financial statements for legal contingencies when the loss is considered probable and the amount can be reasonably estimated. The assessment is re-evaluated each accounting period and is based on all available information, including the impact of negotiations, settlements, rulings, advice of legal counsel, and other information and events pertaining to each case. The outcomes of outstanding legal matters are inherently unpredictable and subject to uncertainties. While there can be no assurance of favorable outcome of these legal matters, we currently believe that the outcome of these matters will not have a material adverse effect on the Company’s results of operations, liquidity or financial position.

Sopheap Prak et al. v. Enovix Corporation et al., 22CV005846, Superior Court of California, Alameda County
On January 21, 2022, two former machine operator employees filed a putative wage and hour class action lawsuit against Enovix and co-defendant Legendary Staffing, Inc. in the Superior Court of California, County of Alameda. The case is captioned Sopheak Prak & Ricardo Pimentel v Enovix Corporation and Legendary Staffing, Inc., 22CV005846. The Prak complaint alleges, among other things, on a putative class-wide basis, that the defendants failed to pay all overtime wages and committed meal period, rest period and wage statement violations under the California Labor Code and applicable Wage Orders. The plaintiffs are seeking unpaid wages, statutory penalties and interest and reasonable costs and attorney fees. In September 2022, the Company began the mediation process. Based on the current knowledge of the legal proceeding, an estimate of possible loss liability has been recorded on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet as of April 2, 2023.
Kody Walker v. Enovix Corporation, 23CV028923. Superior Court of California, Alameda County
On March 8, 2023, a former employee filed a putative class action lawsuit against Enovix in the Superior Court of California, County of Alameda (the “Walker Complaint”). The Walker Complaint alleges, among other things, on a putative class-wide basis, that the Company failed to pay minimum wages, overtime and sick time wages, failed to reimburse employees for required expenses, failed to provide meal and rest periods and issued inaccurate wage statement under the California Labor Code and applicable Wage Orders. The Walker Complaint asserts on an individual basis that Walker was constructively discharged. The plaintiff seeks unpaid wages, statutory penalties and interest and reasonable costs and attorney fees.
Securities Class Action Compliant
On January 6, 2023, a purported Company stockholder filed a securities class action complaint in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California against the Company and certain of its current and former officers and directors. The complaint alleges that defendants violated Sections 10(b) and 20(a) of the Exchange Act of 1934 and Rule 10b-5 promulgated thereunder by making material misstatements or omissions in public statements related to the Company’s manufacturing scaleup. The complaint seeks unspecified damages, interest, fees and costs on behalf of all persons and entities who purchased and/or acquired shares of the Company’s common stock between February 22, 2021 and January 3, 2023. A substantially identical complaint was filed on January 25, 2023 by another purported Company stockholder. Based on currently available information, the Company is unable to make a reasonable estimate of loss or range of losses, if any, arising from this matter.
Guarantees and Indemnifications
In the normal course of business, the Company enters into contracts and agreements that contain a variety of representations and warranties and provide for general indemnifications. The Company’s exposure under these agreements is unknown because it involves claims that may be made against the Company in the future but have not yet been made. To date, the Company has not paid any claims or been required to defend any action related to its indemnification obligations. However, the Company may record charges in the future as a result of these indemnification obligations.
The Company also has indemnification obligations to its officers and directors for specified events or occurrences, subject to some limits, while they are serving at the Company’s request in such capacities. The Company believes the fair
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ENOVIX CORPORATION
NOTES TO THE CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Continued)
(Unaudited)
value of these indemnification agreements is minimal. Accordingly, the Company has not recorded any liabilities relating to these obligations for the period presented.
Note 8. Warrants
Common Stock Warrants
On July 14, 2021, Enovix Corporation, a Delaware Corporation, Rodgers Silicon Valley Acquisition Corp. (“RSVAC”), and RSVAC Merger Sub Inc., a Delaware Corporation and wholly owned subsidiary of RSVAC, consummated the closing of the transactions contemplated by the Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated February 22, 2021 (the “Business Combination”). In connection with the Business Combination in July 2021, the Company assumed 17,500,000 common stock warrants outstanding, which consisted of 11,500,000 warrants held by third-party investors (the “Public Warrants”) and 6,000,000 Private Placement Warrants. The Public Warrants met the criteria for equity classification and the Private Placement Warrants are classified as liability. In 2022, the Public Warrants were either exercised or redeemed. As of April 2, 2023 and January 1, 2023, there were no Public Warrants outstanding.
Private Placement Warrants
The 6,000,000 Private Placement Warrants were originally issued in a private placement to the initial stockholder of the Sponsor in connection with the initial public offering of RSVAC. Each whole Private Placement Warrant became exercisable for one whole share of the Company's common stock at a price of $11.50 per share on December 5, 2021. As of April 2, 2023 and January 1, 2023, the Company had 6,000,000 Private Placement Warrants outstanding. See Note 3 “Fair Value Measurement” for more information.
Note 9. Net Income (Loss) per Share
The Company computes net earnings per share (“EPS”) of common stock using the two-class method. Basic EPS is computed using net income (loss) divided by the weighted-average number of common stock shares outstanding. Diluted EPS is computed using net income (loss) with an adjustment of changes in fair value of the Private Placement Warrants recorded in earnings divided by the total of weighted-average number of common stock shares outstanding and any dilutive potential common stock shares outstanding. Dilutive potential common stock shares included the assumed stock options exercises, vesting and issuance activities of restricted stock units and estimated common stock issuance under the employee stock purchase plan.
The following table sets forth the computation of the Company’s basic and diluted net EPS of common stock for the periods presented below (in thousands, except share and per share amount).
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ENOVIX CORPORATION
NOTES TO THE CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Continued)
(Unaudited)
Quarters Ended
April 2, 2023April 3, 2022
Numerator:
Net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders - basic$(73,603)$42,707 
Decrease in fair value of Private Placement Warrants (67,800)
Net loss attributable to common stockholders - diluted$(73,603)$(25,093)
Denominator:
Weighted-average shares outstanding used in computing net loss per share of common stock, basic155,626,977 151,648,439 
Dilutive effect of Private Placement Warrants 1,690,023 
Weighted-average shares outstanding used in computing net loss per share of common stock, diluted155,626,977 153,338,462 
Net income (loss) per share of common stock:
Basic$(0.47)$0.28 
Diluted$(0.47)$(0.16)
As the Company reported net loss for the periods presented above, these potentially dilutive securities were anti-dilutive and are excluded in the computation of diluted net loss per share. The following table discloses shares of the securities that were not included in the diluted EPS calculation above because they are anti-dilutive for the periods presented above.
Quarters Ended
April 2, 2023April 3, 2022
Stock options outstanding4,608,824 5,536,905 
Restricted stock units and performance restricted stock units outstanding9,821,622 917,079 
Private Placement Warrants outstanding6,000,000  
Employee stock purchase plan estimated shares349,988 78,198 
Note 10. Stock-based Compensation
The Company issues equity awards to employees and non-employees in the form of stock options, restricted stock units (“RSUs”) and performance based RSUs (“PRSUs”). Additionally, the Company also offers an employee stock purchase plan (“ESPP”) to its eligible employees. The Company uses Black-Scholes option pricing model to value its stock options granted and the estimated shares to be purchased under the ESPP. For both RSUs and PRSUs, the Company uses its common stock price, which is the last reported sales price on the grant date to value those securities.
In general, the Company recognizes its stock-based compensation expense on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period and records forfeitures as they occur. For PRSUs, the Company uses the graded vesting method to calculate
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ENOVIX CORPORATION
NOTES TO THE CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Continued)
(Unaudited)
the stock-based compensation expense. At each reporting period, the Company would recognize and adjust the stock-based compensation expense based on its probability assessment in meeting its PRSUs' performance conditions.
Stock-based Compensation Expense
The following table summarizes the total stock-based compensation expense, by operating expense category, recognized in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations for the periods presented below (in thousands).
Quarters Ended
April 2, 2023April 3, 2022
Cost of revenue$951 $ 
Research and development11,667 2,512 
Selling, general and administrative16,539 2,726 
Total stock-based compensation expense$29,157 $5,238 
For the quarter ended April 2, 2023, the Company capitalized $0.6 million of stock-based compensation as property and equipment, net in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet. For the quarter ended April 3, 2022, the Company capitalized an immaterial amount of stock-based compensation as deferred contract costs, inventory and property and equipment, net in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet. There was no recognized tax benefit related to stock-based compensation for the periods presented. In addition, the Company accrued $0.1 million of bonus to be settled in equity awards as accrued compensation on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet as of April 2, 2023.
As of April 2, 2023, there was approximately $116.8 million of total unrecognized stock-based compensation expense related to unvested equity awards, which are expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 3.8 years. As of April 2, 2023, there was approximately $0.6 million of total unrecognized stock-based compensation related to the ESPP, which is expected to be recognized over a period of 1.1 years.
Equity Award Modification
During the quarter ended April 2, 2023, in connection with the retirement or resignation of several of the Company's management team members, including the Company's former Chief Executive Officer, the Company evaluated the change in employment status in accordance with ASC 718 Compensation - Stock Compensation. The Company concluded that the change in status impacted the vesting conditions as the term of equity award exercise period was extended and certain of the equity awards were accelerated and vested immediately. The Company recognized $21.1 million stock-based compensation expense related to the modifications for the quarter ended April 2, 2023.
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ENOVIX CORPORATION
NOTES TO THE CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Continued)
(Unaudited)
Stock Option Activity
The following table summarized stock option activities for the fiscal quarter ended April 2, 2023 (in thousands, except share and per share amount).
Number of
Options
Outstanding
Weighted
Average
Exercise
Price
Weighted
Average
Remaining
Contractual
Life (Years)
Aggregate
Intrinsic
Value (1) (2)
Balances as of January 1, 20235,034,282$9.07 
Exercised(86,654)3.79 $845 
Forfeited(338,804)9.79 
Balances as of April 2, 20234,608,824$9.12 8.0$27,382 
(1)The intrinsic value of options exercised is based upon the value of the Company’s stock at exercise.
(2)
The aggregate intrinsic value of the stock options outstanding as of April 2, 2023 represents the value of the Company’s closing stock price at $14.91 on April 2, 2023 in excess of the exercise price multiplied by the number of options outstanding.
Unvested early exercised stock options which are subject to repurchase by the Company are not considered participating securities as those shares do not have non-forfeitable rights to dividends or dividend equivalents. Unvested early exercised stock options are not considered outstanding for purposes of the weighted average outstanding share calculation until they vest.
As of April 2, 2023, 1,461,128 shares remained subject to the Company’s right of repurchase as a result of early exercised stock options. The remaining liability related to early exercised shares as of April 2, 2023 was $0.1 million and was recorded in other current and non-current liabilities in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Restricted Stock Unit and Performance Restricted Stock Unit Activities
The following table summarized RSUs and PRSUs activities for the fiscal quarter ended April 2, 2023 (in thousands, except share and per share amount).
RSUsPRSUs
Number of
Shares
Outstanding
Weighted Average
Grant Date Fair Value
Number of
Shares
Outstanding
Weighted Average
Grant Date Fair Value
Issued and unvested shares balances as of January 1, 20235,910,097 $14.11 1,461,061 $13.41 
Granted4,640,958 8.37   
Vested(606,139)13.10 (166,716)13.41 
Forfeited(257,662)13.16 (1,159,977)13.41 
Issued and unvested shares outstanding as of April 2, 20239,687,254 $11.44 134,368 $13.41 
Note 11. Related Party
Employment Relationship
The Company employs two family members of the Company’s former Chief Executive Officer, who perform engineering work in the Fremont facility.
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ENOVIX CORPORATION
NOTES TO THE CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Continued)
(Unaudited)
Note 12. Subsequent Events
Convertible Senior Notes
On April 20, 2023, the Company issued $172.5 million aggregate principal amount of 3.0% convertible senior notes due 2028 (the “Convertible Senior Notes”), pursuant to an indenture, dated as of April 20, 2023 (the “Indenture”), between the Company and U.S. Bank Trust Company, National Association, as trustee (the “Trustee”). The offering and sale of the Convertible Senior Notes were made by the Company to the initial purchasers in reliance on the exemption from registration provided by Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), for resale by the initial purchasers to qualified institutional buyers (as defined in the Securities Act) pursuant to the exemption from registration provided by Rule 144A under the Securities Act. The issuance includes the exercise in full by the initial purchasers of their option to purchase an additional $22.5 million aggregate principal amount of Convertible Senior Notes. $10.0 million principal amount of Convertible Senior Notes (the “Affiliate Notes”) were issued to an entity affiliated with Thurman John “T.J.” Rodgers, the Company’s Chairman (the “Affiliated Investor”), in a concurrent private placement.
The Convertible Senior Notes are unsecured obligations of the Company and bear interest at a rate of 3.0% per year from April 20, 2023, and will be payable semiannually in arrears on May 1 and November 1 of each year, beginning on November 1, 2023. The Convertible Senior Notes and the Affiliated Notes will mature on May 1, 2028 unless earlier converted, redeemed or repurchased.
The net proceeds from the offering are approximately $165.7 million. The Company used approximately 10% of the gross proceeds from the offering to pay the cost of the capped call transactions entered on April 20, 2023 in connection with the offering. The remaining net proceeds will be used to build out a second battery cell manufacturing facility and fund the acquisition of production lines of the Company’s second-generation manufacturing equipment, and for working capital and other general corporate purposes.
Capped Call Transactions
The capped call transactions are generally expected to reduce the potential dilution to the Company's common stock upon any conversion of the Convertible Senior Notes and/or offset any cash payments the Company is required to make in excess of the principal amount of the converted Convertible Senior Notes, as the case may be, with such reduction and/or offset subject to a cap based on a cap price initially equal to $21.17 per share (which represents a premium of 56.0% over the last reported sale price of the Company's common stock of $13.57 per share on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on April 17, 2023), and is subject to certain adjustments under the terms of the capped call transactions.
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Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion and analysis provide information that the management of Enovix Corporation (referred as to “we,” “us,” “our” and “Enovix”) believes is relevant to an assessment and understanding of Enovix’s condensed consolidated results of operations and financial condition as of April 2, 2023 and for the quarter and fiscal year-to-date ended April 2, 2023 and should be read together with the condensed consolidated financial statements that are included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. This discussion and analysis contain forward-looking statements based upon our current expectations, estimates and projections that involve risks and uncertainties. Actual results and timing of selected events may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those set forth in the section titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
Business Overview
Enovix Corporation is on a mission to power the technologies of the future. We do this by designing, developing, manufacturing and commercializing next generation Lithium-ion, or Li-ion, battery cells that significantly increase the amount of energy density and storage capacity relative to conventional battery cells. Our battery’s mechanical design, or “architecture,” allows us to use high performance chemistries while enabling safety and charge time advantages.
The benefit of an enhanced battery for portable electronics is devices that have more power budget available to keep up with user preferences for more advanced features and more attractive form factors. The benefit of an advanced battery for Electric Vehicles (“EVs”) is a faster charging battery that reduces the cost per mile due to higher energy density.
Key Trends, Opportunities and Uncertainties
We generate revenue from the sale of (a) silicon-anode lithium-ion batteries and battery pack products (“Product Revenue”) and (b) engineering revenue contracts (“Service Revenue”) for the development of silicon-anode lithium-ion battery technology. Our performance and future success depend on several factors that present significant opportunities, but also pose risks and challenges as described in the section titled “Risk Factors” included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
Q1 2023 Highlights:
During the first quarter of 2023, we produced 12,500 wearable-size cells, which was above our forecast of 9,000 units and 2.8x over the 4,442 units shipped in the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2022. This progress was enabled by across‑the‑board improvements in yield and productivity in our first production line (“Fab 1”).
Additionally, we cleared several key hurdles toward scaling with our second generation (“Gen 2”) production line (“Gen 2 Autoline”). First, our Board of Directors approved the design of the Gen 2 Autoline on March 9, 2023, ahead of schedule. Second, during the quarter, we issued purchase orders for both the Gen 2 Autoline for high volume production and a new higher speed pilot line (“Agility Line”) for customer qualification, meeting a commitment we made earlier this year. The Gen 2 Autoline will enable us to achieve an over 10x throughput improvement over the current Fremont Line 1.
In March 2023, we signed a non-binding Letter of Intent (“LOI”) with YBS International Berhad to locate our first Gen 2 Autoline in an existing YBS building at the Penang Science Park in Malaysia. This second manufacturing facility (“Fab 2”) will allow us to scale production in proximity to customer assembly, suppliers, and a deep pool of manufacturing talent. Penang Island in Malaysia is the epicenter of assembly and test for the semiconductor industry. In addition, the LOI calls for YBS to work with local banks and government authorities to secure non-dilutive financing to fund Gen 2 Line 1 and we are seeking at least $70 million. At 200,000 square feet, the new Malaysian Fab 2 building has enough space to accommodate four production lines that will be capable of manufacturing between 38 million to 75 million batteries a year, depending on battery size (one cell phone battery equals approximately two wearable batteries).
In April 2023, we issued $172.5 million in convertible senior notes (the “Convertible Senior Notes”) to fund Gen 2 Autolines 2, 3 and 4 in our Malaysia Fab 2 building. We now have a Fab 2 building and over 25 employees in Penang, Malaysia, and are in the process of closing local funding for our first Gen 2 Autoline for Fab 2.
Our revenue funnel was $1.46 billion at the end of first quarter of 2023, which was comprised of $744.0 million of Engaged Opportunities and $718.0 million of Active Designs and Design Wins (each as defined below). Our revenue funnel is defined as the potential value of a full production year for all of the customer projects for which we have been engaged. The components of the revenue funnel are:
Engaged Opportunities: Consists of engaged customers that have determined that our battery is applicable to their product and are evaluating our technology.
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Active Designs: Consists of customers that have completed evaluation of our technology, identified the end-product and started design work.
Design Win: Consists of customers that have funded a custom battery design or are qualifying one of our standard batteries for a formally approved product that will use an Enovix cell.
The speed with which we convert our revenue funnel to purchase orders and revenue will ultimately be governed by how fast we qualify customers, improve our manufacturing processes and bring on additional capacity.
Product Development
Our product strategy is to develop battery “nodes” that share the same set of active materials and mechanical design and then build batteries at different sizes to accommodate customer requirements based on these nodes. Our product roadmap consists of future nodes at higher levels of energy density based on both materials and design innovation. Our goal is to drive energy density improvements at a faster rate than the Li-ion battery industry’s track record and introduce higher performing battery nodes over time.
We have historically built and sampled standard size batteries that have broad application within specific end markets such as wearables, mobile devices, laptops and AR eyewear. We have also launched custom battery designs with customers that require a unique set of dimensions to accommodate the battery cavity in their device.
In the second quarter of 2022, we began production in Fab 1 of a standard battery cell sized for wearable devices such as a smartwatch and other Internet-of-Things ("IoT") devices. In 2023, we intend to begin production in Fab 1 of a standard battery cell sized for mobile devices such as smartphones. By the end of 2023, we intend to install the Agility Line in Fab 1 to produce custom size batteries more quickly for customer qualification and focus on custom cell development.
Commercialization
We commenced deliveries of commercial cells from Fab 1, but we have experienced challenges associated with bringing up the manufacturing equipment in Fab 1, including technical issues negatively impacting yield and volume production, and extended shipping times, supply chain constraints and intermittent vendor support during equipment bring-up resulting from COVID-19 travel restrictions imposed by certain countries in Asia. Fab 1 features a first-of-its-kind line for battery production. As a result, we regularly face and overcome new challenges to improve yield and output. Simultaneously, these efforts have provided and continue to provide valuable learning experiences, allowing us to improve our processes and equipment for future lines. With production commenced, our focus in Fab 1 is on increasing volumes and yields.
Our go-to-market strategy this year and through most of 2024 will be to launch standard-size small and large cells into the IoT market. This market includes many applications that need higher battery capacity such as smartwatches, medical monitoring devices, connected industrial devices, and mixed reality headsets. In the quarter, we began shipping full-qual samples of our large cell. This included shipping the first cells to customers incorporating our revolutionary safety technology, BrakeFlowTM, which we are targeting for production on the Gen 2 Autoline in Malaysia in 2024.
This was also the first quarter in which the company shipped simplified single-cell wearable battery packs to customers who want a fully tested complete battery solution for a faster time to market. Battery packs are a complete tested battery system solution that feature packaging and electronics to control charging and safe discharging. Multi‑battery packs also contain a protective racking system and heating and cooling capability.
Finally, to serve high-volume customers, who often demand custom packaging, we accelerated into this year the delivery of our highly flexible Gen 2 Agility Line a lower throughput Gen 2 line designed for quick battery size changeover.
Market Focus and Market Expansion
Within the portable electronics market, we have simplified our market focus to three categories: IoT (wearables, AR/VR, medical, industrial, cameras, etc.), Mobile (smartphones, land mobile radios, enterprise devices, etc.), and Computing (laptops, tablets). We estimate the Total Addressable Market (“TAM”) for lithium-ion batteries in our targeted portable electronics markets to be $23 billion in 2026 based on company estimates as of January 2023 that incorporate end market unit estimates from IDTechEx, IDC, Avicenne Energy and Statista.
We believe focusing on these categories ahead of EVs is the right strategy for any advanced battery company because of the economic and time-to-market advantages. Entering the EV battery market requires billions of dollars of capital to build Gigafactories, offers lower prices per kWh than mobile electronics and demands long qualification cycles. We believe the best approach is to start in premium markets where we can leverage our differentiated technology and solidify
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our manufacturing process while driving toward profitability At the same time, we are seeding our entry into the EV battery market by sampling batteries to EV OEMs and continuing work on our three-year grant with the U.S. Department of Energy to demonstrate batteries featuring our silicon anode paired with EV-class cathode materials. Our goal is to translate this work into partnerships (e.g., joint ventures or licensing) with EV OEMs or battery OEMs in order to commercialize our technology in this end market.
Access to Capital
Assuming we experience no significant delays in the research and development of our battery nor any deterioration in capital efficiency, we believe that our cash resources are sufficient to fund the continued build-out and production ramp as well as our Fab 2 for growth. In April 2023, we completed our offering of the Convertible Senior Notes due 2028. The net proceeds of the Convertible Senior Notes will provide us additional capital to fund multiple Gen 2 Autolines at Fab 2 and scale up quicker in Malaysia.
Regulatory Landscape
We operate in an industry that is subject to many established environmental regulations, which have generally become more stringent over time, particularly in hazardous waste generation and disposal and pollution control. While we expect certain regulations under President Biden’s administration could, if adopted, facilitate market demand and revenue growth, other potential regulations, if adopted, could result in additional operating costs.
Components of Results of Operations
Revenue
In June 2022, we began to generate revenue from our planned principal business activities. We recognize revenue within the scope of Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. We generate revenue from our Product Revenue and Service Revenue for the development of silicon-anode lithium-ion battery technology.
Product Revenue is recognized once we have satisfied the performance obligations and the customer obtains control of the goods at a point in time under the revenue recognition criteria. Product Revenue is recognized in an amount that reflects the consideration for the corresponding performance obligations for the silicon-anode lithium-ion batteries or battery pack products transferred.
Service Revenue contracts generally include the design and development efforts to conform our existing battery technology with customers’ required specifications. Consideration for Service Revenue contracts generally becomes payable when we meet specific contractual milestones, which include the design and approval of custom cells, procurement of fabrication tooling to meet the customer’s specifications, and fabrication and delivery of custom cells from our pilot production line. Within the existing Service Revenue contracts, the amount of consideration is fixed, the contracts contain a single performance obligation, and revenue is recognized at the point in time the final milestone is met (i.e., a final working prototype meeting all required specifications) and the customer obtains control of the deliverable.
Cost of Revenue
Cost of revenue includes materials, labor, depreciation expense, and other direct costs related to Service Revenue contracts and production lines. Labor consists of personnel-related expenses such as salaries and benefits, and stock-based compensation. Since our production commenced in the second quarter of 2022, we anticipate that cost of revenue will continue to increase as we optimize our first production line and bring-up our second production line.
Capitalization of certain costs are recognized as an asset if they relate directly to a customer contract, generate or enhance resources of the entity that will be used in satisfying future performance obligations, and are expected to be recovered. If these three criteria are not met, the costs are expensed in the period incurred. Deferred costs are recognized as cost of revenue in the period when the related revenue is recognized.
Operating Expenses
Research and Development Expenses
Research and development expenses consist of engineering services, allocated facilities costs, depreciation, development expenses, materials, labor and stock-based compensation related primarily to our (i) technology development, (ii) design, construction, and testing of preproduction prototypes and models, and (iii) certain costs related to the design,
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construction and operation of our pilot plant that are not of a scale economically feasible to us for commercial production. Research and development costs are expensed as incurred.
To date, research and development expenses have consisted primarily of personnel-related expenses for scientists, experienced engineers and technicians as well as costs associated with the expansion and ramp up of our engineering and manufacturing facility in Fremont, California, including the material and supplies to support the product development and process engineering efforts. As we ramp up our engineering operations to complete the development of batteries and required process engineering to meet customer specifications, we anticipate that research and development expenses will continue to increase for the foreseeable future as we expand hiring of scientists, engineers and technicians and continue to invest in additional plant and equipment for product development, building prototypes and testing of batteries. We established a research and development center in India that initially focuses on developing machine learning algorithms.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
Selling, general and administrative expenses consist of personnel-related expenses, marketing expenses, allocated facilities expenses, depreciation expenses, travel expenses, and professional services expenses, including legal, human resources, audit, accounting and tax-related services. Personnel related costs consist of salaries, benefits and stock-based compensation. Facilities costs consist of rent and maintenance of facilities.
We are expanding our personnel headcount to support the ramping up of commercial manufacturing and being a public company. Accordingly, we expect our selling, general and administrative expenses to increase significantly in the near term and for the foreseeable future.
Other Income (Expense), net
Other income and expense, net primarily consists of dividends, interest income, interest expense, fair value adjustments for outstanding common stock warrants.
Income Tax Expense (Benefit)
Our income tax provision consists of an estimate for U.S. federal and state income taxes based on enacted rates, as adjusted for allowable credits, deductions, uncertain tax positions, changes in deferred tax assets and liabilities and changes in the tax law. We maintain a valuation allowance against the full value of our U.S. and state net deferred tax assets because we believe the recoverability of the tax assets is not more likely than not.
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Results of Operations
Comparison of Quarter Ended April 2, 2023 to Prior Year's Quarter Ended April 3, 2022
The following table sets forth our condensed consolidated operating results for the periods presented below (in thousands):
Quarters Ended
April 2, 2023April 3, 2022
Change ($)
% Change
Revenue $21 $— $21 N/M
Cost of revenue12,248 515 11,733 N/M
Gross margin(12,227)(515)(11,712)N/M
Operating expenses:
Research and development 23,749 12,731 11,018 87 %
Selling, general and administrative 27,274 11,869 15,405 130 %
Total operating expenses 51,023 24,600 26,423 107 %
Loss from operations (63,250)(25,115)(38,135)152 %
Other income (expense):
Change in fair value of convertible preferred stock warrants and common stock warrants(12,840)67,800 (80,640)N/M
Interest income, net2,466 24 2,442 N/M
Other income (expense), net 21 (2)23 N/M
Total other income (expense), net (10,353)67,822 (78,175)N/M
Net income (loss) and comprehensive income (loss)$(73,603)$42,707 $(116,310)(272)%
N/M – Not meaningful
Revenue
Revenue for the quarter ended April 2, 2023 was $21 thousand. As of both April 2, 2023 and January 1, 2023, we had $3.8 million of deferred revenue on our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Cost of Revenue
Cost of revenue for the quarter ended April 2, 2023 was $12.2 million, compared to $0.5 million during the quarter ended April 3, 2022. The increase in cost of revenue of $11.7 million was attributable to $7.4 million of labor costs, $2.9 million of allocated depreciation expense and the remaining increase was related to direct materials, facility and other miscellaneous direct costs since we commenced our production in 2022. As of both April 2, 2023 and January 1, 2023, we had $0.8 million of deferred contract costs on our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
In the beginning of June of 2022, we completed construction of our first production line and placed this equipment in service. As a result, we began depreciating this production equipment over its estimated useful life. We also began capitalizing inventory and recognizing factory overhead expenses in cost of revenue, which are largely fixed overhead costs (idle costs) that were previously recognized in research and development expenses. We expect equipment depreciation and idle costs to continue to increase. A full quarter of depreciation and idle costs was included in the first quarter of 2023 and no such costs were included in the corresponding period of 2022. In addition, we anticipate our factory overhead expenses will continue to increase in the next 12 months as we continue to hire additional personnel to support the build-out of additional production lines and maintain our new manufacturing facilities.
Research and Development Expenses
Research and development expenses for the quarter ended April 2, 2023 were $23.7 million, compared to $12.7 million during the quarter ended April 3, 2022. The increase of $11.0 million, or 87%, was primarily attributable to a one-time severance, benefits and stock-based compensation expense of $9.1 million in connection with the departures of our former Chief Technology Officer and a senior executive during the quarter. The remaining increase of $1.9 million was primarily due to an increase in our research and development employee headcount resulting in a $3.2 million increase in salaries and employee benefits, a $0.9 million increase in stock-based compensation expenses, a $0.5 million increase in
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depreciation expense, which were partially offset by decreases in research and development expenses as some of the overhead costs were period costs and recorded as cost of revenue in the first quarter of 2023 instead of research and development expense in the corresponding period in 2022.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
Selling, general and administrative expenses for the quarter ended April 2, 2023 were $27.3 million, compared to $11.9 million during the quarter ended April 3, 2022. The increase of $15.4 million, or 130%, was primarily attributable to a one-time severance, benefits and stock-based compensation expense of $13.8 million in connection with the departures of our former President, Chief Executive Officer and Director and certain other executives during the quarter. The remaining increase of $1.6 million was primarily due to an increase in our selling, general and administrative employee headcount resulting in a $0.8 million increase in salaries and employee benefits and a $0.9 million increase in stock-based compensation expenses, which were partially offset by decreases in other miscellaneous expenses.
We anticipate that our overhead expenses will continue to increase in the next 12 months as we continue to hire additional personnel to support and maintain our new manufacturing facilities, as well as for our operation expansion.
Change in Fair Value of Convertible Preferred Stock Warrants and Common Stock Warrants
The change in fair value of common stock warrants of $12.8 million for the quarter ended April 2, 2023 was attributable to an increase, during the quarter, in the fair value of the 6,000,000 common stock warrants that are held by Rodgers Capital, LLC (the “Sponsor”) and certain of its members (the “Private Placement Warrants”). The increase in fair value of Private Placement Warrants was primarily due to an increase in our common stock price during the quarter.
The change in fair value of common stock warrants of $67.8 million for the quarter ended April 3, 2022 was attributable to a decrease, during the quarter, in the fair value of the Private Placement Warrants.
Interest Income, net
Interest income, net for the quarter ended April 2, 2023 were $2.5 million, compared to $24 thousand during the quarter ended April 3, 2022. The increase of $2.4 million was primarily due to the fact that we received higher dividend income from our money market account during the quarter ended April 2, 2023 as compared to the corresponding period in 2022.
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
While we prepare our condensed consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”), we also utilize and present certain financial measures that are not based on GAAP. We refer to these financial measures as “Non-GAAP” financial measures. In addition to our financial results determined in accordance with GAAP, we believe that EBITDA, and Adjusted EBITDA, and Free Cash Flow (each as defined below), are useful measures in evaluating our financial and operational performance distinct and apart from financing costs, certain non-cash expenses and non-operational expenses.
These Non-GAAP financial measures should be considered in addition to results prepared in accordance with GAAP but should not be considered a substitute for or superior to GAAP. We endeavor to compensate for the limitation of the Non-GAAP financial measures presented by also providing the most directly comparable GAAP measures.
We use Non-GAAP financial information to evaluate our ongoing operations and for internal planning, budgeting and forecasting purposes. We believe that Non-GAAP financial information, when taken collectively, may be helpful to investors in assessing our operating performance and comparing our performance with competitors and other comparable companies. You should review the reconciliations below but not rely on any single financial measure to evaluate our business.
EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA
“EBITDA” is defined as earnings (net loss) adjusted for interest expense; income taxes; depreciation expense, and amortization expense. “Adjusted EBITDA” includes additional adjustments to EBITDA such as stock-based compensation expense; change in fair value of common stock warrants; loss on early debt extinguishment and other special items as determined by management which it does not believe to be indicative of its underlying business trends. EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA are intended as supplemental financial measures of our performance that are neither required by, nor presented in accordance with GAAP. We believe that the use of EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA provides an additional tool for investors to use in evaluating ongoing operating results and trends, and in comparing our financial measures with those of comparable companies, which may present similar Non-GAAP financial measures to investors.
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However, you should be aware that when evaluating EBITDA, and Adjusted EBITDA, we may incur future expenses similar to those excluded when calculating these measures. In addition, the presentation of these measures should not be construed as an inference that our future results will be unaffected by unusual or nonrecurring items. Our computation of EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA may not be comparable to other similarly titled measures computed by other companies, because all companies may not calculate EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA in the same fashion.
Below is a reconciliation of net loss on a GAAP basis to the Non-GAAP EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA financial measures for the periods presented below (in thousands):
Quarters Ended
April 2, 2023April 3, 2022
Net income (loss)$(73,603)$42,707 
Depreciation and amortization3,598 448 
EBITDA(70,005)43,155 
Stock-based compensation expense29,157 5,238 
Change in fair value of common stock warrants12,840 (67,800)
Adjusted EBITDA$(28,008)$(19,407)
Free Cash Flow
We define “Free Cash Flow” as (i) net cash from operating activities less (ii) capital expenditures, net of proceeds from disposals of property and equipment, all of which are derived from our Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows. The presentation of non-GAAP Free Cash Flow is not intended as an alternative measure of cash flows from operations, as determined in accordance with GAAP. We believe that this financial measure is useful to investors because it provides investors to view our performance using the same tool that we use to gauge our progress in achieving our goals and it is an indication of cash flow that may be available to fund investments in future growth initiatives. Below is a reconciliation of net cash used in operating activities to the Free Cash Flow financial measures for the periods presented below (in thousands):
Quarters Ended
April 2, 2023April 3, 2022
Net cash used in operating activities$(25,611)$(19,689)
Capital expenditures(3,032)(10,451)
Free Cash Flow$(28,643)$(30,140)
Liquidity and Capital Resources
We have incurred operating losses and negative cash flows from operations since inception through April 2, 2023 and expect to incur operating losses for the foreseeable future. As of April 2, 2023, we had cash and cash equivalents of $293.8 million, working capital of $276.1 million and an accumulated deficit of $458.4 million.
On April 20, 2023, we issued $172.5 million aggregate principal amount of 3.0% Convertible Senior Notes due 2028, pursuant to an indenture, dated as of April 20, 2023 (the “Indenture”), between the Company and U.S. Bank Trust Company, National Association, as trustee (the “Trustee”). The offering and sale of the Convertible Senior Notes were made by us to the initial purchasers in reliance on the exemption from registration provided by Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), for resale by the initial purchasers to qualified institutional buyers (as defined in the Securities Act) pursuant to the exemption from registration provided by Rule 144A under the Securities Act. The issuance includes the exercise in full by the initial purchasers of their option to purchase an additional $22.5 million aggregate principal amount of Convertible Senior Notes. $10.0 million principal amount of Convertible Senior Notes (the “Affiliate Notes”) issued to an entity affiliated with Thurman John “T.J.” Rodgers, the Company’s Chairman (the “Affiliated Investor”), in a concurrent private placement.
The Convertible Senior Notes are unsecured obligations and bear interest at a rate of 3.0% per year from April 20, 2023, and will be payable semiannually in arrears on May 1 and November 1 of each year, beginning on November 1,
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2023. The Convertible Senior Notes and the Affiliated Notes will mature on May 1, 2028 unless earlier converted, redeemed or repurchased.
The net proceeds from the offering are approximately $165.7 million. We used approximately 10% of the gross proceeds from the offering to pay the cost of the capped call transactions entered on April 20, 2023 in connection with the offering. The remaining net proceeds will be used to build out a second battery cell manufacturing facility and fund the acquisition of production lines of our second-generation manufacturing equipment, and for working capital and other general corporate purposes.
Material Cash Requirements
As of April 2, 2023, we had cash and cash equivalents of $293.8 million. We currently use cash to fund operations, meet working capital requirements and fund our capital expenditures. In fiscal year 2023 and over the next several years, we expect that our research and development expenses and selling, general and administrative expenses will continue to increase.
For the fiscal quarter ended April 2, 2023, we used $3.0 million of our cash to fund our acquisitions of property and equipment. We will continue to increase our property and equipment purchases in the near future to support the build-out of our manufacturing facilities and our battery manufacturing production. See more discussion on contractual obligations and commitments section.
Based on the anticipated spending, timing of expenditures and the estimated net proceeds from the offering, we currently expect that our cash will be sufficient to meet our funding requirements over the next twelve months from the date this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q is filed. We believe we will meet longer-term expected future cash requirements and obligations through a combination of available cash, cash equivalents and future debt financings, and access to other public or private equity offerings as well as potential strategic arrangements. We have made our estimates on historical experience and various other relevant factors and we believe that they are reasonable. Actual results may differ from our estimates, and we could utilize our available capital resources sooner than we expect.
Summary of Cash Flows
The following table provides a summary of cash flow data for the periods presented below (in thousands).
Quarters Ended
April 2, 2023April 3, 2022Change ($)
Net cash used in operating activities$(25,611)$(19,689)$(5,922)
Net cash used in investing activities(3,032)(10,451)7,419 
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities(457)53,025 (53,482)
Change in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash$(29,100)$22,885 $(51,985)
Fiscal Quarter Ended April 2, 2023 Compared to Prior Fiscal Quarter Ended April 3, 2022
Operating Activities
Our cash flows used in operating activities to date have been primarily comprised of operating expenses. We continue to increase hiring for employees in supporting the ramping up of commercial manufacturing and being a public company. We expect our cash used in operating activities to increase significantly before we start to generate any material cash inflows from commercially manufacturing and selling our batteries.
Net cash used in operating activities was $25.6 million for the fiscal quarter ended April 2, 2023. Net cash used in operating activities consists of net loss of $73.6 million, adjusted for non-cash items and the effect of changes in working capital. Non-cash adjustments primarily include the change in fair value of the Private Placement Warrants of $12.8 million, stock-based compensation expense of $29.2 million and depreciation and amortization expense of $3.6 million.
Net cash used in operating activities was $19.7 million for the fiscal quarter ended April 3, 2022. Net cash used in operating activities consists of net income of $42.7 million, adjusted for non-cash items and the effect of changes in working capital. Non-cash adjustments primarily include the change in fair value of convertible preferred stock warrants of $67.8 million and stock-based compensation expense of $5.2 million.
Investing Activities
Our cash flows used in investing activities to date have been primarily comprised of purchases of property and equipment. We expect the costs to acquire property and equipment to increase substantially in the near future as we
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complete the build-out of our manufacturing facility for our battery manufacturing production. Net cash used in investing activities, which were primarily related to equipment purchases, were $3.0 million and $10.5 million for the fiscal quarters ended April 2, 2023 and April 3, 2022, respectively.
Financing Activities
Net cash used by financing activities was $0.5 million for the fiscal quarter ended April 2, 2023, which primarily consisted of $0.8 million of payroll tax payments for shares withheld upon vesting of restricted stock units, partially offset by $0.3 million of proceeds from the exercise of stock options to purchase our common stock, par value $0.0001 per share (“Common Stock”).
Net cash provided by financing activities was $53.0 million for the fiscal quarter ended April 3, 2022, which was primarily consisted of $52.8 million of net proceeds from the exercises of our common stock warrants.
Contractual Obligations and Commitments
We lease our headquarters, engineering, and manufacturing space in Fremont, California under a single non-cancelable operating lease with an expiration date of August 31, 2030. We also lease a small office in Fremont, California under a non-cancelable operating lease that expires in April 2026 with an option to extend the lease for five years. For the lease payment schedule, please see Note 6 “Leases” of the notes to our condensed consolidated financial statements in Part I of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for further information.
We expect to enter into other commitments to support our product development, the build-out of our manufacturing facilities, and our business development, which are generally cancelable upon notice. Additionally, from time to time, we enter into agreements in the normal course of business with various vendors, which are generally cancellable upon notice. Payments due upon cancellation consist only of payments for services provided or expenses incurred, including non-cancelable obligations of service providers, up to the date of cancellation. As of April 2, 2023, our commitments included approximately $81.9 million of our open purchase orders and contractual obligations that occurred in the ordinary course of business. In April 2023, we placed additional purchase orders of approximately $59.5 million for Gen2 Autoline equipment, as well as placed purchase orders of our Agility Line. For contractual obligations, please see Note 7 “Commitments and Contingencies” of the notes to our condensed consolidated financial statements in Part I of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for further information.
As discussed above, we completed the Convertible Senior Notes offering on April 20, 2023. Please see Note 12 “Subsequent Events” of the notes to our condensed consolidated financial statements in Part I of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for further information.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
The preparation of our condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires our management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities in our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. We base these estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ materially from these estimates. These estimates and assumptions include but are not limited to: depreciable lives for property and equipment, the valuation allowance on deferred tax assets, assumptions used in stock-based compensation and estimates to fair value of common stock warrants. Certain accounting policies have a more significant impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements due to the size of the financial statement elements and prevalence of their application.
There have been no material changes to our critical accounting policies and estimates disclosed in Part II, Item 7 of the Annual Report on Form 10-K, except for the updates to the estimated useful lives for property and equipment and revenue recognition, and the additions of inventory accounting policy and product warranties, each as noted in Note 2 “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” of the notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements included in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
See Note 2 “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” of the notes to our condensed consolidated financial statements in Part I of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for further information.
Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
We are exposed to a variety of market and other risks, including the effects of changes in interest rates, and inflation, as well as risks to the availability of funding sources, hazard events, and specific asset risks.
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Interest Rate Risk
The market risk inherent in our financial instruments and financial position represents the potential loss arising from adverse changes in interest rates. As of April 2, 2023, we had cash and cash equivalents of $293.8 million, consisting of interest-bearing money market accounts. Our primary exposure to market risk is interest rate sensitivity, which is affected by changes in the general level of U.S. interest rates. An immediate 100 basis point change in interest rates would not have a material effect on the fair market value of our cash equivalents. As of April 2, 2023, we had no outstanding interest bearing debt.
Uncertain financial markets could result in a tightening in the credit markets, a reduced level of liquidity in many financial markets, and extreme volatility in fixed income and credit markets.
Foreign Currency Risk
There was no material foreign currency risk for the quarter ended April 2, 2023. Our activities to date have been limited and were conducted primarily in the U.S.
The majority of our expenses, and capital purchasing activities are transacted in U.S. dollars. Our operations outside of the U.S. are subject to risks typical of operations outside of the U.S. including, but not limited to, differing economic conditions, changes in political climate, differing tax structures, other regulations and restrictions, and foreign exchange rate volatility. Given the impact of foreign currency exchange rates has not been material to our historical operating results, we have not entered into derivative or hedging transactions, but we may do so in the future if our exposure to foreign currency should become more significant. As our international operations grow, we will continue to reassess our approach to manage our risk relating to fluctuations in currency rates.
Inflation Risk
In recent months, inflation has continued to increase significantly in the U.S. and overseas resulting in rising transportation, wages, and other costs. Inflation may generally affect us by increasing our costs and expenses. Although there was no material inflation risk for the quarter ended April 2, 2023 as our activities to date have been primarily related to research and development activities, as well as our Fab 1 construction, if our costs become subject to significant inflationary pressures, we may not be able to fully offset such higher costs with increased revenue. Our inability or failure to do so could harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Item 4. Controls and Procedures
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
We maintain disclosure controls and procedures that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed in the reports that we file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized, and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms and that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and our Chief Financial Officer, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.
As of April 2, 2023, our management, with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer and our Chief Financial Officer, evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Exchange Act). Based on the evaluation, our Chief Executive Officer and our Chief Financial Officer concluded, as of April 2, 2023, that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective at a reasonable assurance level.
Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting
There has been no change in our internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Rules 13a-15(d) and 16d-15(d) under the Exchange Act) that occurred during the quarter ended April 2, 2023 that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
Inherent Limitations on Effectiveness of Controls
Our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, does not expect that our disclosure controls and procedures or our internal controls, will prevent all error and all fraud. A control system, no matter how well conceived and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the objectives of the control system are met. Further, the design of a control system must reflect the fact that there are resource constraints, and the benefits of controls must be considered relative to their costs. Because of the inherent limitations in all control systems, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that all control issues and instances of fraud, if any, within the Company have been detected.
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PART II. OTHER INFORMATION
Item 1. Legal Proceedings
Refer to the heading “Litigation” in Note 7 “Commitments and Contingencies” of the notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements included in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for information regarding our legal proceedings.
Item 1A. Risk Factors.
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before you make a decision to buy our securities, you should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below together with all of the other information contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, including our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes and in the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” If any of the events or developments described below were to occur, our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition could suffer materially, the trading price of our securities could decline and you could lose all or part of your investment. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently believe to be immaterial may also adversely affect our business. The risks facing our business have not changed substantively from those discussed in our Annual Report, except for those risks marked with an asterisk (*).
SUMMARY OF RISK FACTORS
Below is a summary of material factors that make an investment in our securities speculative or risky. Importantly, this summary does not address all of the risks and uncertainties that we face.
We will need to improve our energy density, which requires us to implement higher energy density materials for both cathodes and anodes, which we may not be able to do.
We rely on a new and complex manufacturing process for our operations: achieving volume production involves a significant degree of risk and uncertainty in terms of operational performance and costs.
We currently do not have manufacturing facilities to produce our lithium-ion battery cell in sufficient quantities to meet expected demand, and if we cannot successfully locate and bring additional facilities online, our business will be negatively impacted and could fail.
We may not be able to source or establish supply relationships for necessary components or may be required to pay costs for components that are more expensive than anticipated, which could delay the introduction of our product and negatively impact our business.
We may be unable to adequately control the costs associated with our operations and the components necessary to build our lithium-ion battery cells.
If our batteries fail to perform as expected, our ability to develop, market and sell our batteries could be harmed.
If we are unable to qualify new customers, our ability to grow revenue or improve our financial results could be harmed.
If we are unable to develop our business and effectively commercialize our products as anticipated, we may not be able to generate revenue or achieve profitability.
Operational problems with our manufacturing equipment subject us to safety risks which, if not adequately addressed, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition or prospects.
We may not be able to source or establish supply relationships for necessary components or may be required to pay costs for components that are more expensive than anticipated, which could delay the introduction of our product and negatively impact our business.
The battery market continues to evolve and is highly competitive, and we may not be successful in competing in this industry or establishing and maintaining confidence in our long-term business prospects among current and future partners and customers.
If we are unable to attract and retain key employees and qualified personnel, our ability to compete could be harmed.
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We are an early-stage company with a history of financial losses and expect to incur significant expenses and continuing losses for the foreseeable future.
We may become subject to product liability claims, which could harm our financial condition and liquidity if we are not able to successfully defend or insure against such claims.
We have been, and may in the future be, adversely affected by the global COVID-19 pandemic.
We may not have adequate funds to acquire our next manufacturing facilities and build them out, and may need to raise additional capital, which we may not be able to do.
We rely heavily on our intellectual property portfolio. If we are unable to protect our intellectual property rights, our business and competitive position would be harmed.
We could face state-sponsored competition from overseas and may not be able to compete in the market on the basis of price.
In the past, we have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. If we are unable to maintain an effective system of internal controls in the future, we may not be able to accurately or timely report our financial condition or results of operations, which may adversely affect our business and stock price.
Servicing our debt requires a significant amount of cash, and we may not have sufficient cash flow from our business to pay our substantial debt.
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Item 1A. Risk Factors
Risks Related to Our Manufacturing and Scale-Up
We will need to improve our energy density, which requires us to implement higher energy density materials for both cathodes and anodes, which we may not be able to do.
Our roadmap to improve our energy density requires us to implement higher energy density materials for both cathodes and anodes. To successfully use these materials, we will have to optimize our cell designs including, but not limited to formulations, thicknesses, geometries, materials, chemistries and manufacturing tolerances and techniques. It could take us longer to incorporate these new materials, or we might not be able to achieve every cell performance specification required by customers. Further, we will need to make improvements in packaging technology to achieve our energy density roadmap. These improvements may not be possible, could take longer or be more difficult than forecasted. This could reduce the performance or delay the availability of products to customers. In addition, we have not yet achieved every specification for all of the products we plan to produce in our first year of commercial production. The failure to achieve all of these specifications or adequately address each of these other challenges could impact the performance of our cells or delay the availability of these products to our customers.
We rely on a new and complex manufacturing process for our operations: achieving volume production involves a significant degree of risk and uncertainty in terms of operational performance and costs.*
Although we have developed our Li-ion battery technology, we rely heavily on a new and complex manufacturing process for the production of our lithium-ion battery cells, all of which has not yet been qualified to operate at large-scale manufacturing volumes. To meet our projected future demand, we believe we need to increase our manufacturing throughput and yield metrics. Meeting our goals will be a multi-quarter endeavor and we have experienced delays in meeting these goals to date. We may experience further delays improving manufacturing yield, throughput and equipment availability.
In addition, it may take longer than expected to install, qualify and release the Gen 2 Autoline at Fab 2 and make further modifications to the Gen1 equipment to achieve our goals for throughput and yield. It may also take longer than anticipated to install our Agility Line.
The work required to develop these processes and integrate equipment into the production of our lithium-ion battery cells, including achieving our goals for throughput and yield, is time intensive and requires us to work closely with developers and equipment providers to ensure that it works properly for our unique battery technology. Such equipment may not arrive on schedule or may not be functioning as designed when it does arrive. This integration work will involve a significant degree of uncertainty and risk, and we have not in the past and may not in the future be able to achieve our goals for throughput and yield. Further, the integration work may result in the delay in the scaling up of production or result in additional cost to our battery cells, particularly if we encounter issues with performance or if we are unable to customize products for certain of our customers. Even after each of our Gen2 manufacturing line and Agility Line is installed, we expect that certain customers may require up to several months to complete technology qualification of the Gen2 line and/or the Agility Line before accepting product that is manufactured at high volume on the Gen2 line, if at all.
Our Fremont pilot line and our large-scale Gen1 and Gen2 manufacturing lines require large-scale machinery. Such machinery has in the past suffered, and is likely to in the future suffer, unexpected malfunctions from time to time and will require repairs and spare parts to resume operations, which may not be available when needed.
In addition, unexpected malfunctions of our production equipment have in the past significantly affected, and may in the future significantly affect, the intended operational efficiency. The people needed to remedy these malfunctions may not be readily available. Because this equipment has not previously been used to build lithium-ion battery cells, the operational performance and costs associated with this equipment can be difficult to predict and may be influenced by factors outside of our control, such as, but not limited to, failures by suppliers to deliver necessary components of our products in a timely manner and at prices and volumes acceptable to us, environmental hazards and remediation, difficulty or delays in obtaining governmental permits, damages or defects in systems, industrial accidents, fires, seismic activity and other natural disasters. Further, we have in the past experienced power outages at our facilities, and if these outages are more frequent or longer in duration than expected it could impact our ability to manufacture batteries in a timely manner.
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Even if we are able to successfully complete development of and modify, as necessary, this new and complex manufacturing process, we may not be able to produce our lithium-ion batteries in commercial volumes in a cost-effective manner.
We currently do not have manufacturing facilities to produce our lithium-ion battery cell in sufficient quantities to meet expected demand, and if we cannot successfully locate and bring an additional facility online, our business will be negatively impacted and could fail.*
Currently, we are continuing to build-out our manufacturing facility in Fremont, California. Even if we are able to overcome the challenges in designing and refining our manufacturing process, this manufacturing facility is currently anticipated to have two manufacturing lines and only one of such manufacturing lines will include a packaging line. We expect these two manufacturing lines will be sufficient to produce batteries in commercial scale, but not in high enough volumes to meet our expected customer demand. We have entered into a non-binding Letter of Intent (“LOI”) with YBS International Berhad to locate our first Gen 2 Autoline in an existing YBS building at the Penang Science Park in Malaysia which, if we are able to overcome the challenges in designing and refining our manufacturing process, will have multiple lines to produce commercial volumes of our lithium-ion batteries to meet our expected customer demands. However, we have not yet entered into a definitive agreement for this facility and, even if we are able to do so, there is no guarantee that the financing for such facility will be secured on commercially reasonable terms or at all, or that our manufacturing process will scale to produce lithium-ion batteries in quantities sufficient to meet demand.
Even if we overcome the manufacturing challenges and achieve volume production of our lithium-ion battery, if the cost, performance characteristics or other specifications of the battery fall short of our or our customers’ targets, our sales, product pricing and margins would likely be adversely affected.
We may not be able to source or establish supply relationships for necessary components or may be required to pay costs for components that are more expensive than anticipated, which could delay the introduction of our product and negatively impact our business.
We rely on third-party suppliers for components necessary to develop and manufacture our lithium-ion batteries, including key supplies, such as our anode, cathode and separator materials. We are collaborating with key suppliers but have not yet entered into agreements for the supply of volume production quantities of these materials. If we are unable to enter into commercial agreements with these suppliers on beneficial terms, or these suppliers experience difficulties ramping up their supply of materials to meet our requirements, or these suppliers experience any delays in providing or developing the necessary materials, or these suppliers cease providing or developing the necessary materials, we could experience delays in delivering on our timelines. For example, cathode material vendors are transitioning from lithium cobalt oxide (“LCO”) to nickel cobalt manganese (“NCM”) or other chemistries due to EV adoption, and this has resulted in a downward trend of LCO supply and production. While we do not expect this to affect our near-term supply of LCO, it has induced us to identify a new LCO vendor.
The unavailability of any equipment component could result in delays in constructing the manufacturing equipment, idle manufacturing facilities, product design changes and loss of access to important technology and tools for producing and supporting our lithium-ion batteries production, as well as impact our capacity. Moreover, significant increases in our production or product design changes by us may in the future require us to procure additional components in a short amount of time. We have faced in the past, and may face suppliers who are unwilling or unable to sustainably meet our timelines or our cost, quality and volume needs, or to do so may cost us more, which may require us to replace them with other sources, which may further impact our timelines and costs. While we believe that we will be able to secure additional or alternate sources for most of our components, there is no assurance that we will be able to do so quickly or at all. Any inability or unwillingness of our suppliers to deliver necessary product components at timing, prices, quality and volumes that are acceptable to us could have a material impact on our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Our business depends on the continued supply of certain materials for our products and we expect to incur significant costs related to procuring materials required to manufacture and assemble our batteries. The cost of our batteries depends in part upon the prices and availability of raw materials such as lithium, silicon, nickel, cobalt, copper and/or other metals. The prices for these materials fluctuate and their available supply has been, and may continue to be, unstable depending on market conditions and global demand for these materials, including as a result of increased global production of EVs and energy storage products, recent inflationary pressures, supply chain disruption caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and war or other armed conflicts, including Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. We also have
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experienced a need for expedited freight services associated with supply chain challenges, resulting in higher logistics costs. Moreover, we may not be able to negotiate purchase agreements and delivery lead-times for such materials on advantageous terms. In addition, several large battery companies are developing and manufacturing key supplies such as cathode material on their own, and as a result such supplies may be proprietary to these companies. Reduced availability of these materials or substantial increases in the prices for such materials has increased, and may continue to increase, the cost of our components and consequently, the cost of our products. There can be no assurance that we will be able to recoup increasing costs of our components, including as a result of recent inflationary pressures, by increasing prices, which in turn would increase our operating costs and negatively impact our prospects.
Any disruption in the supply of components or materials could temporarily disrupt production of our batteries until an alternative supplier is able to supply the required material. Changes in business conditions, unforeseen circumstances, governmental changes, labor shortages, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and other factors beyond our control or which we do not presently anticipate, could also affect our suppliers’ ability to deliver components to us on a timely basis.
Currency fluctuations, trade barriers, trade sanctions, export restrictions, tariffs, embargoes or shortages and other general economic or political conditions may limit our ability to obtain key components for our lithium-ion batteries or significantly increase freight charges, raw material costs and other expenses associated with our business, which could further materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and prospects. For example, our factory is located in Fremont, California and our products require materials and equipment manufactured outside the country, including the PRC. If tariffs are placed on these materials and equipment, it could materially impact our ability to obtain materials on commercially reasonable terms.
Any of the foregoing could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
We may be unable to adequately control the costs associated with our operations and the components necessary to build our lithium-ion battery cells.
We will require significant capital to develop and grow our business and expect to incur significant expenses, including those relating to raw material procurement, leases, sales and distribution as we build our brand and market our batteries, and general and administrative costs as we scale our operations. Our ability to become profitable in the future will not only depend on our ability to successfully market our lithium-ion batteries and services, but also to control our costs. A large fraction of the cost of our battery, like most commercial batteries, is driven by the cost of component materials like anode and cathode powder, separator, pouch material, current collectors, etc. It also includes machined parts that are part of the package. We have assumed based on extensive discussions with vendors, customers, industry analysts and independent research, target costs at startup of production and an assumed cost reduction over time. These estimates may prove inaccurate and adversely affect the cost of our batteries.
If we are unable to cost-efficiently manufacture, market, sell and distribute our lithium-ion batteries and services, our margins, profitability and prospects would be materially and adversely affected. We have not yet produced any lithium-ion battery cells at significant volume, and our forecasted cost advantage for the production of these cells at scale, compared to conventional lithium-ion cells, will require us to achieve certain goals in connection with rates of throughput, use of electricity and consumables, yield and rate of automation demonstrated for mature battery, battery material and manufacturing processes, that we have not yet achieved and may not achieve in the future. We are planning on improving the productivity and reducing the cost of our production lines relative to the first line we have built. In addition, we are planning continuous productivity improvements going forward. If we are unable to achieve these targeted rates or productivity improvements, our business will be adversely impacted.
Risks Related to Our Customers
Our relationships with our current customers are subject to various risks which could adversely affect our business and future prospects.
Our customers’ products are typically on a yearly or longer refresh cycles. If we miss qualification timing by even a small amount, the impact to our production schedule, revenue and profits could be large. While we intend to pass all qualification criteria, some field reliability risks remain such as cycle life, long-term high-temp storage capacity and swelling, etc. While we have product wins for which we are designing custom products for specific customers, we do not have volume production commitments for each of these products. Should we not be able to convert these design wins
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into orders for volume production, our financial performance would be impacted. Batteries are known in the market to have historically faced risk associated with safety, and therefore customers can be reluctant to take risks on new battery technologies. Since new battery technologies have not been widely adopted by customers in the battery market, it may be difficult for us to overcome customer risk objections. If unanticipated problems arise, it may raise warranty costs and adversely affect revenue and profit.
In addition, one of our customers has exclusive rights to purchase our batteries for use in the augmented reality and virtual reality space through 2024, which could limit our ability to sell batteries to other customers in this space, which may limit our ability to grow our business in the augmented reality and virtual reality space through 2024.
If our batteries fail to perform as expected, our ability to develop, market and sell our batteries could be harmed.
We have experienced a limited number of returns of batteries that have failed to perform as expected. As commercial production of our lithium-ion battery cells increases, our batteries have in the past and may in the future contain defects in design and manufacture that may cause them to not perform as expected or that may require repairs, recalls and design changes. Our batteries are inherently complex and incorporate technology and components that have not been used for other applications and that may contain defects and errors, particularly when first introduced. We have a limited frame of reference from which to evaluate the long-term performance of our lithium-ion batteries. There can be no assurance that we will be able to detect and fix any defects in our lithium-ion batteries prior to the sale to potential consumers. If our batteries fail to perform as expected, we could lose design wins and customers may delay deliveries, terminate further orders or initiate product recalls, each of which could adversely affect our sales and brand and could adversely affect our business, prospects and results of operations.
Our 3D cell architecture is different than others and may behave differently in certain customer use applications that we have not evaluated. This could limit our ability to deliver to certain applications, including, but not limited to action cameras, portable gaming and smartwatches built for children. In addition, we have limited historical data on the performance and reliability of our batteries over time, and therefore it could fail unexpectedly in the field resulting in significant warranty costs or brand damage in the market. In addition, the electrodes and separator structure of our battery is different from traditional lithium-ion batteries and therefore could be susceptible to different and unknown failure modes leading our batteries to fail and cause a safety event in the field, which could further result in the failure of our end customers’ products as well as the loss of life or property. Such an event could result in severe financial penalties for us, including the loss of revenue, cancellation of supply contracts and the inability to win new business due to damage in the market. In addition, some of our supply agreements require us to fund some or all of the cost of a recall and replacement of end products affected by our batteries.
Our future growth and success depend on our ability to qualify new customers.
Our growth will depend in large part on our ability to qualify new customers. We have invested heavily in qualifying our customers and plan to continue to do so. We are in the very early stages of growth in our existing markets, and we expect to substantially raise brand awareness by connecting directly with our customers. We anticipate that these activities will lead to additional deliveries, and, as a result, increase our base of our qualified customers. An inability to attract new customers would substantially impact our ability to grow revenue or improve our financial results.
Our future growth and success depend on our ability to sell effectively to large customers.
Our potential customers are manufacturers of products that tend to be large enterprises and organizations, including the U.S. military. Therefore, our future success will depend on our ability to effectively sell our products to such large customers. Sales to these end-customers involve risks that may not be present (or that are present to a lesser extent) with sales to smaller customers. These risks include, but are not limited to, increased purchasing power and leverage held by large customers in negotiating contractual arrangements with us and longer sales cycles and the associated risk that substantial time and resources may be spent on a potential end-customer that elects not to purchase our solutions.
Large organizations often undertake a significant evaluation process that results in a lengthy sales cycle. In addition, product purchases by large organizations are frequently subject to budget constraints, multiple approvals and unanticipated administrative, processing and other delays. Finally, large organizations typically have longer implementation cycles, require greater product functionality and scalability, require a broader range of services, demand that vendors take on a larger share of risks, require acceptance provisions that can lead to a delay in revenue recognition and expect greater payment flexibility. All of these factors can add further risk to business conducted with these potential customers.
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We may not be able to accurately estimate the future supply and demand for our batteries, which could result in a variety of inefficiencies in our business and hinder our ability to generate revenue. If we fail to accurately predict our manufacturing requirements, we could incur additional costs or experience delays.
It is difficult to predict our future revenue and appropriately budget for our expenses, and we may have limited insight into trends that may emerge and affect our business. We anticipate being required to provide forecasts of our demand to our current and future suppliers prior to the scheduled delivery of products to potential customers. Currently, there is no historical basis for making judgments on the demand for our batteries or our ability to develop, manufacture and deliver batteries, or our profitability in the future. If we overestimate our requirements, our suppliers may have excess inventory, which indirectly would increase our costs. If we underestimate our requirements, our suppliers may have inadequate inventory, which could interrupt manufacturing of our products and result in delays in shipments and revenue. Many factors will affect the demand for our batteries. For example, most of the end products in which our batteries are expected to be used are manufactured in the PRC. If the political situation between the PRC and the United States were to deteriorate, it could prevent our customers from purchasing our batteries.
Lead times for materials and components that our suppliers order may vary significantly and depend on factors such as the specific supplier, contract terms and demand for each component at a given time. If we fail to order sufficient quantities of product components in a timely manner, the delivery of batteries to our potential customers could be delayed, which would harm our business, financial condition and operating results.
Increases in sales of our lithium-ion battery cells may increase our dependency upon specific customers and our costs to develop and qualify our system solutions.
The development of our lithium-ion battery cells is dependent, in part, upon successfully identifying and meeting our customers’ specifications for those products. Developing and manufacturing lithium-ion batteries with specifications unique to a customer increases our reliance upon that customer for purchasing our products at sufficient volumes and prices in a timely manner. If we fail to identify or develop products on a timely basis, or at all, that comply with our customers’ specifications or achieve design wins with customers, we may experience a significant adverse impact on our revenue and margins. Even if we are successful in selling lithium-ion batteries to our customers in sufficient volume, we may be unable to generate sufficient profit if per-unit manufacturing costs exceed per-unit selling prices. Manufacturing lithium-ion batteries to customer specifications requires a longer development cycle, as compared to discrete products, to design, test and qualify, which may increase our costs and could harm our business, financial condition and operating results.
Risks Related to Our Business
We have a history of financial losses and expect to incur significant expenses and continuing losses for the foreseeable future.
We incurred net income (loss) of approximately $(73.6) million and $42.7 million, respectively, for the fiscal quarters ended April 2, 2023 and April 3, 2022 and an accumulated deficit of approximately $458.4 million as of April 2, 2023. We believe that we will continue to incur operating and net losses each quarter until at least the time we begin significant production of our Li-ion batteries.
We expect the rate at which we will incur losses to be significantly higher in future periods as we, among other things: continue to incur significant expenses in connection with the development of our manufacturing process and the manufacturing of our batteries; secure additional manufacturing facilities and invest in manufacturing capabilities; build up inventory of components for our batteries; increase our sales and marketing activities; develop our distribution infrastructure; and increase our general and administrative functions to support our growing operations. We may find that these efforts are more expensive than we currently anticipate or that these efforts may not result in substantial revenue, which would further increase our losses.
We are in the early stage of commercialization. In addition, certain aspects of our technology have not been fully field tested. If we are unable to develop our business and effectively commercialize our products as anticipated, we may not be able to generate revenue or achieve profitability.
The growth and development of our operations will depend on the successful commercialization and market acceptance of our products and our ability to manufacture products at scale while timely meeting customers’ demands.
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There is no certainty that, once shipped, our products will operate as expected, and we may not be able to generate sufficient customer confidence in our latest designs and ongoing product improvements. There are inherent uncertainties in our ability to predict future demand for our products and, as a consequence, we may have inadequate production capacity to meet demand, or alternatively, have excess available capacity. Our inability to predict the extent of customer adoption of our proprietary technologies makes it difficult to evaluate our future prospects.
Beginning in the second quarter of 2022, we made commercial shipments to multiple customers. If we experience significant delays or order cancellations, or if we fail to develop our products in accordance with contract specifications, then our operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected. In addition, there is no assurance that if we alter or change our products in the future, that the demand for these new products will develop, which could adversely affect our business and any possible revenue. If our products are not deemed desirable and suitable for purchase and we are unable to establish a customer base, we may not be able to generate revenue or attain profitability. In addition, if we are unable to deliver our service on a timely basis, we may not be able to attract and engage new or existing customers for service contracts and we may not be able to generate revenue or attain profitability.
We face significant barriers in our attempts to produce our products, our products are still under development, and we may not be able to successfully develop our products at commercial scale. If we cannot successfully overcome those barriers, our business will be negatively impacted and could fail.
Producing lithium-ion batteries that meet the requirements for wide adoption by industrial and consumer applications is a difficult undertaking. We are still in the early stage of commercialization and face significant challenges achieving the long-term energy density targets for our products and producing our products in commercial volumes. Some of the challenges that could prevent the wide adoption of our lithium-ion batteries include difficulties with (i) increasing the volume, yield and reliability of our cells, (ii) increasing manufacturing capacity to produce the volume of cells needed to meet demand, (iii) installing and optimizing higher volume manufacturing equipment, (iv) packaging our batteries to ensure adequate cycle life, (v) material cost reductions, (vi) qualifying new vendors, (vii) expanding supply chain capacity, (viii) the completion of rigorous and challenging battery safety testing required by our customers or partners, including but not limited to, performance, cycle life and abuse testing and (x) the development of the final manufacturing processes.
Our Fab 1 is in the early production stage and there are significant yield, material cost, performance and manufacturing process challenges to be solved prior to volume commercial production. We are likely to encounter further engineering challenges as we increase the capacity of our batteries and efficiency of our manufacturing process. If we are not able to overcome these barriers in producing our batteries, our business could fail.
The Gen1 manufacturing equipment requires qualified labor to inspect the parts to ensure proper assembly. We have already experienced equipment malfunctions during the scaling up of the manufacturing process, and the lack of qualified labor to inspect our batteries may further slow our production and impact our manufacturing costs and production schedule.
Even if we complete development and achieve volume production of our lithium-ion batteries, if the cost, performance characteristics or other specifications of the batteries fall short of our targets, our sales, product pricing and margins would likely be adversely affected.
Operational problems with our manufacturing equipment subject us to safety risks which, if not adequately addressed, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition or prospects.
Operational problems with our manufacturing equipment subject us to safety risks which, if not adequately addressed, could result in the personal injury to or death of workers, the loss of production equipment, damage to manufacturing facilities, monetary losses, delays and unanticipated fluctuations in production. We have retained industry experts and designed our factory with appropriate safety precautions to address the fire risk of manufacturing batteries and minimize the impact of any event. Should these precautions be inadequate or an event be larger than expected, we could have significant equipment or facility damage that would impact our ability to deliver product and require additional cash to recover. In addition, operational problems may result in environmental damage, administrative fines, increased insurance costs and potential legal liabilities. All of these operational problems could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition or prospects.
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Lithium-ion battery modules in the marketplace have been observed to catch fire or vent smoke and flame, and such events have raised concerns over the use of such batteries.
We develop lithium-ion battery cells for industrial and consumer equipment and intend to supply these lithium-ion battery cells for industrial and consumer applications. Historically, lithium-ion batteries in laptops and cellphones have been reported to catch fire or vent smoke and flames, and more recently, news reports have indicated that several EVs that use high-power lithium-ion batteries have caught on fire. As such, any adverse publicity and issues as to the use of high-power batteries in automotive or other applications will affect our business and prospects. In addition, any failure of our battery cells may cause damage to the industrial or consumer equipment or lead to personal injury or death and may subject us to lawsuits.
Our risks in this area are particularly pronounced given our lithium-ion batteries and our BrakeFlowTM technology have not yet been commercially tested or mass produced. We may have to recall our battery cells, which would be time-consuming and expensive. A product liability claim could generate substantial negative publicity about our batteries and business and inhibit or prevent commercialization of other future battery candidates, which would have a material adverse effect on our brand, business, prospects and operating results. Any insurance coverage might not be sufficient to cover all potential product liability claims. Any lawsuit seeking significant monetary damages either in excess of our coverage, or outside of our coverage, may have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business and financial condition. We may not be able to secure additional product liability insurance coverage on commercially acceptable terms or at reasonable costs when needed, particularly if we do face liability for our products and are forced to make a claim under our policy.
Further, product liability claims, injuries, defects or other problems experienced by other companies in the lithium-ion battery market could lead to unfavorable market conditions for the industry as a whole, and may have an adverse effect on our ability to attract new customers, thus harming our growth and financial performance.
The battery market continues to evolve and is highly competitive, and we may not be successful in competing in this industry or establishing and maintaining confidence in our long-term business prospects among current and future partners and customers.
The battery market in which we compete continues to evolve and is highly competitive. To date, we have focused our efforts on our silicon anode technology, which has been, and is being, designed to outperform conventional lithium-ion battery technology and other battery technologies. However, lithium-ion battery technology has been widely adopted, and our current competitors have, and future competitors may have, greater resources than we do and may also be able to devote greater resources to the development of their current and future technologies. These competitors also may have greater access to customers and may be able to establish cooperative or strategic relationships amongst themselves or with third parties that may further enhance their resources and competitive positioning. Furthermore, existing and potential customers have developed, and may in the future develop, their own lithium-ion battery technology and other battery technologies. In addition, lithium-ion battery manufacturers may make improvements in energy density faster than they have historically and what we have assumed, continue to reduce cost and expand supply of conventional batteries and therefore reduce our energy density advantage and price premium, which would negatively impact the prospects for our business or negatively impact our ability to sell our products at a market-competitive price and sufficient margins.
There are a number of companies seeking to develop alternative approaches to lithium-ion battery technology. We expect competition in battery technology to intensify. Developments in alternative technologies, improvements in batteries technology made by competitors, or changes in our competitors' respective business models may materially adversely affect the sales, pricing and gross margins of our batteries. For example, large battery companies are becoming increasingly vertically integrated with respect to cathode materials, with the consequence being that next generation LCO material development will be proprietary to large battery companies. If a competing technology is developed that has superior operational or price performance, our business will be harmed. Further, our financial modeling assumes that, in addition to improving our core architecture over time, we are able to retain access to state-of-the-art industry materials as they are developed. If industry battery competitors develop their own proprietary materials, we would be unable to access these and would lose our competitive advantage in the market. If we fail to accurately predict and ensure that our battery technology can address customers’ changing needs or emerging technological trends, or if our customers fail to achieve the benefits expected from our lithium-ion batteries, our business will be harmed.
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We must continue to commit significant resources to develop our battery technology in order to establish a competitive position, and these commitments will be made without knowing whether such investments will result in products potential customers will accept. There is no assurance we will successfully identify new customer requirements or develop and bring our batteries to market on a timely basis, or that products and technologies developed by others will not render our batteries obsolete or noncompetitive, any of which would adversely affect our business and operating results. Further, if we are unable to improve our energy density at a rate faster than the industry, our competitive advantage will erode.
Customers will be less likely to purchase our batteries if they are not convinced that our business will succeed in the long term. Similarly, suppliers and other third parties will be less likely to invest time and resources in developing business relationships with us if they are not convinced that our business will succeed in the long term. Accordingly, in order to build and maintain our business, we must maintain confidence among current and future partners, customers, suppliers, analysts, ratings agencies and other parties in our long-term financial viability and business prospects. Maintaining such confidence may be particularly complicated by certain factors including those that are largely outside of our control, such as our limited operating history, market unfamiliarity with our products, any delays in scaling manufacturing, delivery and service operations to meet demand, competition and uncertainty regarding our production and sales performance compared with market expectations.
We could face state-sponsored competition from overseas and may not be able to compete in the market on the basis of price.
One or more foreign governments, including the PRC, have concluded that battery technology and battery manufacturing is a national strategic priority and therefore have instituted official economic policies meant to support these activities. These policies may provide our competitors with artificially lower costs. If these lower costs materialize and enable competitive products to be sold into our markets at prices that, if applied to us, would cause us to become unprofitable, our ability to continue operating could be threatened.
Our failure to keep up with rapid technological changes and evolving industry standards may cause our batteries to become less marketable or obsolete, resulting in a decrease in demand for our batteries and harm our ability to grow revenue and expand margins.
The lithium-based battery market is characterized by changing technologies and evolving industry standards, which are difficult to predict. This, coupled with frequent introduction of new products and models, has shortened product life cycles and may render our batteries less marketable or obsolete. Also, our ability to grow revenue and expand margins will depend on our ability to develop and launch new product designs. If we fail to invest in the development of new products and technologies, we may lose the opportunity to compete effectively or at all, particularly in the electric vehicle space, which has been the subject of significant progress in recent years. Third parties, including our competitors, may improve their technologies or even achieve technological breakthroughs that could decrease the demand for our batteries. Our ability to adapt to evolving industry standards and anticipate future standards and market trends will be a significant factor in maintaining and improving our competitive position and our prospects for growth.
If we are unable to attract and retain key employees and qualified personnel, our ability to compete could be harmed.
Our success depends on our ability to attract and retain our executive officers, key employees and other qualified personnel, and, as a relatively small company with key talent residing in a limited number of employees, our operations and prospects may be severely disrupted if we lose any one or more of their services. There have been, and from time to time, there may continue to be, changes in our management team resulting from the hiring or departure of executives and key employees, or the transition of executives within our business, which could disrupt our business. For example, Dr. Raj Talluri began serving as our new Chief Executive Officer, replacing Harrold Rust on January 18, 2023. Such changes in our executive management team may be disruptive to our business. Some of our executive officers and members of our management team have been with us for a short period of time and we continue to develop key functions within various aspects of our business. We are also dependent on the continued service of our other senior technical and management personnel because of the complexity of our products. Our senior management, including Dr. Talluri, and key employees are employed on an at-will basis. We cannot ensure that we will be able to retain the services of any member of our senior management or other key employees or that we would be able to timely replace members of our
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senior management or other key employees should any of them depart. The loss of one or more of our senior management or other key employees could harm our business.
Further, as we locate our new manufacturing facilities, build it out and bring it online, we will need to hire personnel to staff and maintain this facility with the technical qualifications, which we may not be able to do in the location at which this facility is located. Labor is subject to external factors that are beyond our control, including our industry’s highly competitive market for skilled workers and leaders, cost inflation, and workforce participation rates. As we build our brand and become more well known, there is increased risk that competitors or other companies will seek to hire our personnel. While some of our employees are bound by non-competition agreements, these may prove to be unenforceable. The failure to attract, integrate, train, motivate and retain these personnel could seriously harm our business and prospects.
We have been, and may in the future be, adversely affected by the global COVID-19 pandemic.
We face various risks related to epidemics, pandemics and other outbreaks, including the recent COVID-19 pandemic. The impact of COVID-19, including changes in consumer and business behavior, pandemic fears and market downturns, restrictions on business and individual activities, labor shortages, supply chain disruptions and inflation, has created significant volatility in the global economy and led to reduced economic activity. The spread of COVID-19 has also impacted our potential customers and suppliers by disrupting the manufacturing, delivery and overall supply chain of battery and device manufacturers. As a result, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic could impact the availability of materials and resources necessary to install, bring-up and supply materials to our first production line.
The ultimate duration and extent of the impact from the COVID-19 pandemic depends on future developments that cannot be accurately forecasted at this time. We do not yet know how businesses, customers, or our partners will operate in a post COVID-19 environment. There may be additional costs or impacts to our business and operations, which could harm our business.
In the past, we had identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. If we are unable to implement and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting in the future, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, and the market price of our common stock may be materially adversely affected.
In the past, we and our independent registered public accounting firm identified two material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, all of which have since been remediated. For the first quarter of fiscal year 2023, we have conducted a review of our internal control for the purpose of providing the reports required by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. During our review and testing, we did not identify any material weakness for the first quarter of fiscal year 2023.
Furthermore, if, in the future, we have a material weakness in our internal controls over financial reporting, we may not detect errors on a timely basis and our financial statements may be materially misstated. We or our independent registered public accounting firm may not be able to conclude on an ongoing basis that we have effective internal control over financial reporting, which could harm our operating results, cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information and cause the trading price of our stock to fall. In addition, as a public company, we are required to file accurate and timely quarterly and annual reports with the SEC under the Exchange Act. Any failure to report our financial results on an accurate and timely basis could result in sanctions, lawsuits, delisting of our shares from The Nasdaq Global Select Market or other adverse consequences that would materially harm our business. In addition, we could become subject to investigations by the stock exchange on which our securities are listed, the SEC and other regulatory authorities and litigation from investors and stockholders, which could harm our reputation and our financial condition, or divert financial and management resources from our core business.
We have incurred and will incur significant increased expenses and administrative burdens as a public company, which could negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We face increased legal, accounting, administrative and other costs and expenses as a public company that we did not incur as a private company. We expect such expenses to further increase now that we are no longer an “emerging growth company” as defined in Section 2(a)(19) of the Securities Act, as modified by the Jumpstart our Business Startups Act. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, including the requirements of Section 404, as well as rules and regulations subsequently implemented by the SEC, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 and the rules and regulations promulgated and to be promulgated thereunder, the PCAOB and the securities
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exchanges, impose additional reporting and other obligations on public companies. Compliance with public company requirements will increase costs and make certain activities more time consuming. A number of those requirements require us to carry out activities that we had not done previously. For example, we have created new board committees and adopted new internal controls and disclosure controls and procedures. In addition, expenses associated with SEC reporting requirements have been and will be incurred. Furthermore, if any issues in complying with those requirements are identified (for example, if we identify a material weakness or significant deficiency in the internal control over financial reporting), we could incur additional costs rectifying those issues, and the existence of those issues could adversely affect our reputation or investor perceptions of us. It may also be more expensive to obtain director and officer liability insurance. Risks associated with our status as a public company may make it more difficult to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our board of directors or as executive officers. The additional reporting and other obligations imposed by these rules and regulations have increased and will increase legal and financial compliance costs and the costs of related legal, accounting and administrative activities. These increased costs will require us to divert a significant amount of money that could otherwise be used to expand the business and achieve strategic objectives. Advocacy efforts by stockholders and third parties may also prompt additional changes in governance and reporting requirements, which could further increase costs.
In addition, we implemented an enterprise resource planning (“ERP”), system for our company. An ERP system is intended to combine and streamline the management of our financial, accounting, human resources, sales and marketing and other functions, enabling us to manage operations and track performance more effectively. However, an ERP system will likely require us to complete many processes and procedures for the effective use of the system or to run our business using the system, which may result in substantial costs. Additionally, in the future, we may be limited in our ability to convert any business that we acquire to the ERP. Any disruptions or difficulties in using an ERP system could adversely affect our controls and harm our business, including our ability to forecast or make sales and collect our receivables. Moreover, such disruption or difficulties could result in unanticipated costs and diversion of management attention.
Our failure to timely and effectively implement controls and procedures required by Section 404(a)of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 that are applicable to us could negatively impact our business.
We are subject to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. The standards required for a public company under Section 404(a) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 are significantly more stringent than those that were required of us as a privately held company. Management may not be able to effectively and timely implement controls and procedures that adequately respond to the increased regulatory compliance and reporting requirements that are applicable to us. If we are not able to implement the additional requirements of Section 404(a) in a timely manner or with adequate compliance, we may not be able to assess whether our internal controls over financial reporting are effective, which may subject us to adverse regulatory consequences and could harm investor confidence and the market price of our securities.
We are required, pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, to furnish a report by management on, among other things, the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of January 1, 2023. This assessment includes disclosure of any material weaknesses identified by our management in our internal control over financial reporting. In addition, our independent registered public accounting firm is required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Our compliance with Section 404 requires that we incur substantial expenses and expend significant management efforts. We engaged a third party service provider to perform a review of our internal control over financial reporting. As we continue to grow, we will hire additional accounting and finance staff with appropriate public company experience and technical accounting knowledge to update the process documentation and internal controls for compliance with Section 404.
During the evaluation and testing process of our internal controls, if we identify one or more material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, we will be unable to certify that our internal control over financial reporting is effective. We cannot assure you that there will not be material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting in the future. Any failure to maintain internal control over financial reporting could severely inhibit our ability to accurately report our financial condition or results of operations. If we are unable to conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm determines we have a material weakness or significant deficiency in our internal control over financial reporting, we could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, the market price of our common stock could decline, and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by the SEC or other regulatory authorities. Failure to remedy any material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, or to implement or
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maintain other effective control systems required of public companies, could also restrict our future access to the capital markets.
We have previously been and may in the future be involved in class-action lawsuits and other litigation matters that are expensive and time-consuming. If resolved adversely, lawsuits and other litigation matters could seriously harm our business.
We have previously been and may in the future be subject to litigation such as putative class action and shareholder derivative lawsuits brought by stockholders. We anticipate that we will be a target for lawsuits in the future, as we have been in the past. For example, on April 5, 2021, Derek Boxhorn, a purported stockholder in RSVAC, filed a complaint in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York against RSVAC and its board of directors. The Boxhorn complaint alleged, among other things, that the defendants violated Sections 14(a) and 20(a) of the Exchange Act, and that the individual defendants breached their fiduciary duties, in connection with the terms of the Business Combination, and that RSVAC’s registration statement contained materially incomplete and misleading information regarding the Business Combination. The case was voluntarily dismissed on October 19, 2021. After the dismissal and on December 3, 2021, the plaintiff filed a motion for attorneys’ fees and costs. On August 23, 2022, the court denied the plaintiff's motion for attorney's fees and the case is closed.
On January 6, 2023, a purported Company stockholder filed a securities class action complaint in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California against us and certain of its current and former officers and directors. The complaint alleges that defendants violated Sections 10(b) and 20(a) of the Exchange Act and Rule 10b-5 promulgated thereunder by making material misstatements or omissions in public statements related to our manufacturing scaleup. The complaint seeks unspecified damages, interest, fees and costs on behalf of all persons and entities who purchased and/or acquired shares of our common stock between February 22, 2021 and January 3, 2023. A substantially identical complaint was filed on January 25, 2023 by another purported Company stockholder. We and the other defendants intend to vigorously defend against the claims in these actions. Any litigation to which we are a party may result in an onerous or unfavorable judgment that may not be reversed on appeal, or we may decide to settle lawsuits on similarly unfavorable terms. Any such negative outcome could result in payments of substantial monetary damages and accordingly our business could be seriously harmed. The results of lawsuits and claims cannot be predicted with certainty. Regardless of the final outcome, defending these claims, and associated indemnification obligations, are costly and can impose a significant burden on management and employees, and we may receive unfavorable preliminary, interim, or final rulings in the course of litigation, which could seriously harm our business.
Risks Related to Our Capital Needs and Capital Strategy
We may not have adequate funds to finance our operating needs and our growth, and may need to raise additional capital, which we may not be able to do.
The design, manufacture and sale of batteries is a capital-intensive business. As a result of the capital-intensive nature of our business, we can be expected to continue to sustain substantial operating expenses without generating sufficient revenue to cover expenditures. We may need to raise additional capital to acquire our next manufacturing facility and build it out. Adequate additional funding may not be available to us on acceptable terms or at all, and if the financial markets become difficult or costly to access, including due to rising interest rates, fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates or other changes in economic conditions, our ability to raise additional capital may be negatively impacted. Our failure to raise capital in the future would have a negative impact on our ability to complete our manufacturing facilities, our financial condition and our ability to pursue our business strategies. The amount of capital that we will be required to raise, and our ability to raise substantial additional capital, will depend on many factors, including, but not limited to:
our ability and the cost to develop our new and complex manufacturing process that will produce lithium-ion batteries in a cost-effective manner;
our ability to continue to build-out and scale our Fremont manufacturing facility in a timely and cost-effective manner;
our ability to locate and acquire new, larger manufacturing facilities on commercially reasonable terms;
our ability to build out our new, larger manufacturing facilities in a cost-effective manner;
the cost of preparing to manufacture lithium-ion batteries on a larger scale;
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the costs of commercialization activities including product sales, marketing, manufacturing and distribution;
our ability to hire additional personnel;
the demand for our lithium-ion batteries and the prices for which we will be able to sell our lithium-ion batteries;
the emergence of competing technologies or other adverse market developments;
the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, results of operations and financial condition; and
volatility in the equity markets, including as a result of war or other armed conflict, such as Russia’s invasion of Ukraine.
Our long-term financial model assumes we expand both on our own and by partnering with other battery companies. Should we not be able to achieve these partnering goals we would have to expand purely on our own. This would require additional capital and could impact how fast we can ramp revenue and achieve profitability. It could also impact our ability to service some customers that require second sources for supply. Additionally, if we can achieve these partnerships but not on the financial terms we are assuming, it could impact our financial performance.
Further, we cannot guarantee that our business will generate sufficient cash flow from operations to fund our capital expenditures or other liquidity needs. Over time, we expect that we will need to raise additional funds through the issuance of equity, equity-related or debt securities or through obtaining credit from financial institutions to fund, together with our principal sources of liquidity, ongoing costs such as research and development relating to our batteries, any significant unplanned or accelerated expenses and new strategic investments.
As discussed in the condensed consolidated financial statements, in Part II, item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we are not profitable and have incurred losses in each year since our inception. We incurred net income (loss) of $(73.6) million and $42.7 million, respectively, for the fiscal quarters ended April 2, 2023 and April 3, 2022. As of April 2, 2023, we had an accumulated deficit of $458.4 million. We expect to continue to incur losses for the foreseeable future, and we anticipate these losses will increase as we continue our manufacturing scale up, add additional manufacturing capacity, continue commercialization and continue to operate as a public company and comply with legal, accounting and other regulatory requirements. We cannot be certain that additional capital will be available on attractive terms, if at all, when needed, which could be dilutive to stockholders, and our financial condition, results of operations, business and prospects could be materially and adversely affected.
Raising additional funds may cause dilution to existing stockholders and/or may restrict our operations or require us to relinquish proprietary rights.*
To the extent that we raise additional capital by issuing equity or convertible debt securities, our existing stockholders’ ownership interest may experience substantial dilution, and the terms of these securities may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect the rights of a holder of our Common Stock. Any agreements for future debt or preferred equity financings, if available, may involve covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as raising additional capital, incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures or declaring dividends. In addition, if we raise additional funds through collaborations, strategic alliances or marketing, distribution or licensing arrangements with third parties, we may be required to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies or future revenue streams. If we incur additional debt, the debt holders, together with holders of our outstanding Convertible Senior Notes, would have rights senior to holders of common stock to make claims on our assets, and the terms of any future debt could restrict our operations, including our ability to pay dividends on our common stock.
Risks Related to Our Convertible Senior Notes
Servicing our debt requires a significant amount of cash, and we may not have sufficient cash flow from our business to pay our substantial debt.*
Our ability to make scheduled payments of the principal of, to pay interest on or to refinance our indebtedness, including the Convertible Senior Notes, depends on our future performance, which is subject to economic, financial, competitive and other factors beyond our control. Our business may not continue to generate cash flow from operations in the future sufficient to service our debt and make necessary capital expenditures. If we are unable to generate such cash flow, we may be required to adopt one or more alternatives, such as selling assets, restructuring debt or obtaining
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additional equity capital on terms that may be onerous or highly dilutive. Our ability to refinance our indebtedness will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. We may not be able to engage in any of these activities or engage in these activities on desirable terms, which could result in a default on our debt obligations, including the Convertible Senior Notes.
The conditional conversion feature of the Convertible Senior Notes, if triggered, may adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.*
In the event the conditional conversion feature of the Convertible Senior Notes is triggered, holders of the Convertible Senior Notes will be entitled to convert their notes at any time during specified periods at their option. If one or more holders elect to convert their notes, unless we elect to satisfy our conversion obligation by delivering solely shares of our common stock (other than paying cash in lieu of delivering any fractional share), we would be required to settle a portion or all of our conversion obligation through the payment of cash, which could adversely affect our liquidity. In addition, even if holders do not elect to convert their notes, we could be required under applicable accounting rules to reclassify all or a portion of the outstanding principal of the Convertible Senior Notes as a current rather than long-term liability, which would result in a material reduction of our net working capital.
Certain provisions in the indenture governing the Convertible Senior Notes may delay or prevent an otherwise beneficial takeover attempt of us.*
Certain provisions in the indenture governing the Convertible Senior Notes may make it more difficult or expensive for a third party to acquire us. For example, the indenture governing the Convertible Senior Notes will require us to repurchase the Convertible Senior Notes for cash upon the occurrence of a fundamental change and, in certain circumstances, to increase the conversion rate for a holder that converts its notes in connection with a make-whole fundamental change. A takeover of us may trigger the requirement that we repurchase the Convertible Senior Notes and/or increase the conversion rate, which could make it costlier for a potential acquirer to engage in such takeover. Such additional costs may have the effect of delaying or preventing a takeover of us that would otherwise be beneficial to investors.
Conversion of the Convertible Senior Notes may dilute the ownership interest of our stockholders or may otherwise depress the price of our common stock.*
The conversion of some or all of the Convertible Senior Notes may dilute the ownership interests of our stockholders. Upon conversion of the Convertible Senior Notes, we have the option to pay or deliver, as the case may be, cash, shares of our common stock, or a combination of cash and shares of our common stock. If we elect to settle our conversion obligation in shares of our common stock or a combination of cash and shares of our common stock, any sales in the public market of our common stock issuable upon such conversion could adversely affect prevailing market prices of our common stock. In addition, the existence of the Convertible Senior Notes may encourage short selling by market participants because the conversion of the Convertible Senior Notes could be used to satisfy short positions, or anticipated conversion of the Convertible Senior Notes into shares of our common stock could depress the price of our common stock.
The accounting method for the Convertible Senior Notes could adversely affect our reported financial condition and results.*
The accounting method for reflecting the Convertible Senior Notes on our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet, accruing interest expense for the Convertible Senior Notes and reflecting the underlying shares of our common stock in our reported diluted earnings per share may adversely affect our reported earnings and financial condition.
In August 2020, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) published Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2020-06 (“ASU 2020-06”), which simplified certain of the accounting standards that apply to convertible notes. ASU 2020-06 eliminated the cash conversion and beneficial conversion feature modes used to separately account for embedded conversion features as a component of equity. Instead, an entity would account for convertible debt or convertible preferred stock securities as a single unit of account, unless the conversion feature requires bifurcation and recognition as derivatives. Additionally, the guidance requires entities to use the “if-converted” method for all convertible instruments in the diluted earnings per share calculation and to include the effect of potential share settlement for instruments that may be settled in cash or shares. ASU 2020-06 became effective for us beginning on January 1, 2022.
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In accordance with ASU 2020-06 and subject to our full accounting assessment, which is not complete as of the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, we expect that the Convertible Senior Notes will be reflected as a liability on our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets, with the initial carrying amount equal to the principal amount of the Convertible Senior Notes, net of issuance costs. The issuance costs will be treated as a debt discount for accounting purposes, which will be amortized into interest expense over the term of the Convertible Senior Notes. As a result of this amortization, the interest expense that we expect to recognize for the Convertible Senior Notes for accounting purposes will be greater than the cash interest payments we will pay on the Convertible Senior Notes, which will result in lower reported income.
In addition, we expect that the shares of common stock underlying the Convertible Senior Notes will be reflected in our diluted earnings per share using the “if converted” method, in accordance with ASU 2020-06. Under that method, diluted earnings per share would generally be calculated assuming that all the Convertible Senior Notes were converted solely into shares of common stock at the beginning of the reporting period, unless the result would be anti-dilutive. The application of the if-converted method may reduce our reported diluted earnings per share to the extent we are profitable in the future, and accounting standards may change in the future in a manner that may adversely affect our diluted earnings per share.
Furthermore, if any of the conditions to the convertibility of the Convertible Senior Notes is satisfied, then we may be required under applicable accounting standards to reclassify the liability carrying value of the Convertible Senior Notes as a current, rather than a long-term, liability. This reclassification could be required even if no noteholders or holders of affiliate notes convert their notes or affiliate notes, respectively, following the satisfaction of those conditions and could materially reduce our reported working capital.
The capped call transactions may affect the value of the Convertible Senior Notes and our common stock.*
In connection with the pricing of the Convertible Senior Notes and the exercise by the initial purchasers of their option to purchase additional Convertible Senior Notes, we entered into capped call transactions (the “Capped Call Transactions”) with certain of the initial purchasers or affiliates thereof and/or other financial institutions (the “Option Counterparties”). The Capped Call Transactions will cover, subject to customary adjustments, the number of shares of our common stock initially underlying the Convertible Senior Notes. The Capped Call Transactions are expected generally to reduce the potential dilution to our common stock upon any conversion of notes and/or offset any cash payments we are required to make in excess of the principal amount of converted notes, as the case may be, with such reduction and/or offset subject to a cap.
In connection with establishing their initial hedges of the Capped Call Transactions, the Option Counterparties or their respective affiliates likely entered into various derivative transactions with respect to our common stock and/or purchased shares of our common stock concurrently with or shortly after the pricing of the Convertible Senior Notes, including with, or from, as the case may be, certain investors in the Convertible Senior Notes.
In addition, the Option Counterparties and/or their respective affiliates may modify their hedge positions by entering into or unwinding various derivatives with respect to our common stock and/or purchasing or selling our common stock or other securities of ours in secondary market transactions prior to the maturity of the Convertible Senior Notes (and are likely to do so on each exercise date of the Capped Call Transactions, or, to the extent we exercise the relevant election under the Capped Call Transactions, following any repurchase, redemption, or conversion of the Convertible Senior Notes).
We cannot make any prediction as to the direction or magnitude of any potential effect that the transactions described above may have on the price of the Convertible Senior Notes or the shares of our common stock. Any of these activities could adversely affect the value of the Convertible Senior Notes and our common stock.
We are subject to counterparty risk with respect to the Capped Call Transactions.*
The Option Counterparties are financial institutions, and we will be subject to the risk that any or all of them might default under the Capped Call Transactions. Our exposure to the credit risk of the Option Counterparties will not be secured by any collateral.
If an Option Counterparty becomes subject to insolvency proceedings, we will become an unsecured creditor in those proceedings with a claim equal to our exposure at that time under the capped call transaction with such Option Counterparty. Our exposure will depend on many factors but, generally, an increase in our exposure will be correlated to an increase in the market price and in the volatility of our common stock. In addition, upon a default by an Option
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Counterparty, we may suffer more dilution than we currently anticipate with respect to our common stock. We can provide no assurances as to the financial stability or viability of the Option Counterparties.
Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property
We rely heavily on our intellectual property portfolio. If we are unable to protect our intellectual property rights, our business and competitive position would be harmed.
We may not be able to prevent unauthorized use of our intellectual property, which could harm our business and competitive position. We rely upon a combination of the intellectual property protections afforded by patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret laws in the United States and other jurisdictions, as well as license agreements and other contractual protections, to establish, maintain and enforce rights in our proprietary technologies. In addition, we seek to protect our intellectual property rights through nondisclosure and invention assignment agreements with our employees and consultants and through non-disclosure agreements with business partners and other third parties. Despite our efforts to protect our proprietary rights, third parties may attempt to copy or otherwise obtain and use our intellectual property or be able to design around our intellectual property. Monitoring unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult and costly, and the steps we have taken or will take to prevent misappropriation may not be sufficient. Any enforcement efforts we undertake, including litigation, could be time-consuming and expensive and could divert management’s attention, which could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition. Moreover, our intellectual property is stored on computer systems that could be penetrated by intruders and potentially misappropriated. There is no guarantee that our efforts to protect our computer systems will be effective. In addition, existing intellectual property laws and contractual remedies may afford less protection than needed to safeguard our intellectual property portfolio.
Patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret laws vary significantly throughout the world. A number of foreign countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as do the laws of the United States. Therefore, our intellectual property rights may not be as strong or as easily enforced outside of the United States, and efforts to protect against the unauthorized use of our intellectual property rights, technology and other proprietary rights may be more expensive and difficult outside of the United States. Further, we have not established our intellectual property rights in all countries in the world, and competitors may copy our designs and technology and operate in countries in which we have not prosecuted out intellectual property. Failure to adequately protect our intellectual property rights could result in our competitors using our intellectual property to offer products, and competitors’ ability to design around our intellectual property would enable competitors to offer similar or better batteries, in each case potentially resulting in the loss of some of our competitive advantage and a decrease in our revenue, which would adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
We may need to defend ourselves against intellectual property infringement claims, which may be time-consuming and could cause us to incur substantial costs.
Companies, organizations or individuals, including our current and future competitors, may hold or obtain patents, trademarks or other proprietary rights that would prevent, limit or interfere with our ability to make, use, develop or sell our products, which could make it more difficult for us to operate our business. From time to time, we may receive inquiries from holders of patents or trademarks inquiring whether we are infringing their proprietary rights and/or seek court declarations that they do not infringe upon our intellectual property rights. Companies holding patents or other intellectual property rights relating to batteries, electric motors or electronic power management systems may bring suits alleging infringement of such rights or otherwise asserting their rights and seeking licenses. In addition, if we are determined to have infringed upon a third party’s intellectual property rights, we may be required to do one or more of the following:
cease selling, incorporating or using products that incorporate the challenged intellectual property;
pay substantial damages;
obtain a license from the holder of the infringed intellectual property right, which license may not be available on reasonable terms or at all; or
redesign our batteries.
In the event of a successful claim of infringement against us and our failure or inability to obtain a license to the infringed technology, our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition could be materially adversely
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affected. In addition, any litigation or claims, whether or not valid, could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and management’s attention.
We also license patents and other intellectual property from third parties, and we may face claims that our use of this intellectual property infringes the rights of others. In such cases, we may seek indemnification from our licensors under our license contracts with them. However, our rights to indemnification may be unavailable or insufficient to cover our costs and losses, depending on our use of the technology, whether we choose to retain control over conduct of the litigation and other factors.
Our patent applications may not result in issued patents or our patent rights may be contested, circumvented, invalidated or limited in scope, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our ability to prevent others from interfering with our commercialization of our products.
Our patent applications may not result in issued patents, which may have a material adverse effect on our ability to prevent others from commercially exploiting products similar to ours. The status of patents involves complex legal and factual questions and the breadth of claims allowed is uncertain. As a result, we cannot be certain that the patent applications that we file will result in patents being issued or that our patents and any patents that may be issued to us will afford protection against competitors with similar technology. Numerous patents and pending patent applications owned by others exist in the fields in which we have developed and are developing our technology. In addition to those who may claim priority, any of our existing or pending patents may also be challenged by others on the basis that they are otherwise invalid or unenforceable. Furthermore, patent applications filed in foreign countries are subject to laws, rules and procedures that differ from those of the United States, and thus we cannot be certain that foreign patent applications related to issued U.S. patents will be issued.
Even if our patent applications succeed and we are issued patents in accordance with them, it is still uncertain whether these patents will be contested, circumvented, invalidated or limited in scope in the future. The rights granted under any issued patents may not provide us with meaningful protection or competitive advantages, and some foreign countries provide significantly less effective patent enforcement than in the United States. In addition, the claims under any patents that issue from our patent applications may not be broad enough to prevent others from developing technologies that are similar or that achieve results similar to ours. The intellectual property rights of others could also bar us from licensing and exploiting any patents that issue from our pending applications. In addition, patents issued to us may be infringed upon or designed around by others, and others may obtain patents that we need to license or design around, either of which would increase costs and may adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
Risks Related to Our Regulatory Compliance
We may encounter regulatory approval difficulties which could delay our ability to launch our lithium-ion battery cells, and compliance with regulatory laws may limit their usefulness.
Any delay in the development and manufacturing scale-up of our lithium-ion battery cells would negatively impact our business as it will delay time to revenue and negatively impact our customer relationships. For example, although we plan on passing all the required regulatory abuse testing, because our design is new and has very high energy density, there may be unanticipated failure modes that occur in the field which could delay or prevent us from launching our batteries. Further, there are current limits on the amount of energy that can be transported via different methods, particularly air travel. These limits have been historically based on the energy of batteries currently on the market. These limits may have to be increased in the future if they are not to limit the transportation of our batteries. If these limits are not increased, it could increase the costs and duration of shipping of our finished product and limit customer use of our batteries in certain cases. This could increase our inventory costs and limit sales of our batteries in some markets.
We are subject to substantial regulation, and unfavorable changes to, or our failure to comply with, these regulations could substantially harm our business and operating results.
Our batteries are subject to substantial regulation under international, federal, state and local laws, including export control laws. We expect to incur significant costs in complying with these regulations. Regulations related to the battery and alternative energy are currently evolving, and we face risks associated with changes to these regulations.
To the extent the laws change, our products may not comply with applicable international, federal, state or local laws, which would have an adverse effect on our business. Compliance with changing regulations could be burdensome,
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time consuming and expensive. To the extent compliance with new regulations is cost prohibitive, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results would be adversely affected.
Internationally, there may be laws in jurisdictions we have not yet entered or laws we are unaware of in jurisdictions we have entered that may restrict our sales or other business practices. The laws in this area can be complex, difficult to interpret and may change over time. Continued regulatory limitations and other obstacles that may interfere with our ability to commercialize our products could have a negative and material impact on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to a variety of laws and regulations related to the safety and transportation of our batteries. Our failure to comply with these laws and regulations may have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Many federal, state and local authorities require certification by Underwriters Laboratory, Inc., an independent, not-for-profit corporation engaged in the testing of products for compliance with certain public safety standards, or other safety regulation certification prior to marketing battery cells. Foreign jurisdictions also have regulatory authorities overseeing the safety of consumer products. Our products may not meet the specifications required by these authorities. A determination that any of our products are not in compliance with these rules and regulations could result in the imposition of fines or an award of damages to private litigants.
In addition, lithium batteries have been identified as a Class 9 dangerous good during transport. To be safely transported (by air, sea, rail or roadways), they must meet various international, national, state and local authorities, including, for example, the provisions laid out in United Nations standard UN 38.3. This standard applies to batteries transported either on their own or installed in a device. UN 38.3 has been adopted by regulators and competent authorities around the world, thus making it a requirement for global market access. The failure to manage the transportation of our products could subject us to increased costs or future liabilities.
We are subject to requirements relating to environmental and safety regulations and environmental remediation matters which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and reputation.
We are subject to numerous federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations governing, among other things, solid and hazardous waste storage, treatment and disposal and remediation of releases of hazardous materials. There are significant capital, operating and other costs associated with compliance with these environmental laws and regulations. Environmental laws and regulations may become more stringent in the future, which could increase costs of compliance or require us to manufacture with alternative technologies and materials.
Federal, state and local authorities also regulate a variety of matters, including, but not limited to, health, safety and permitting in addition to the environmental matters discussed above. New legislation and regulations may require us to make material changes to our operations, resulting in significant increases to the cost of production.
Our manufacturing process will have hazards such as, but not limited to, hazardous materials, machines with moving parts and high voltage and/or high current electrical systems typical of large manufacturing equipment and related safety incidents. There may be safety incidents that damage machinery or product, slow or stop production or harm employees. Consequences may include litigation, regulation, fines, increased insurance premiums, mandates to temporarily halt production, workers’ compensation claims or other actions that impact the company brand, finances or ability to operate.
A failure to properly comply (or to comply properly) with foreign trade zone laws and regulations could increase the cost of our duties and tariffs.
Our manufacturing facility in Fremont, California has been established as a foreign trade zone through qualification with U.S. Customs. Materials received in a foreign trade zone are not subject to certain U.S. duties or tariffs until the material enters U.S. commerce. We benefit from the adoption of foreign trade zones by reduced duties, deferral of certain duties and tariffs and reduced processing fees, which help us realize a reduction in duty and tariff costs. However, the operation of our foreign trade zone requires compliance with applicable regulations and continued support of U.S. Customs with respect to the foreign trade zone program. If we are unable to maintain the qualification of our foreign trade zones, or if foreign trade zones are limited or unavailable to us in the future, our duty and tariff costs would increase, which could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
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Risks Related to Ownership of Our Securities
The trading price of our Common Stock may be volatile, and the value of our Common Stock may decline.
Historically, our stock price has been volatile. During the fiscal year ended January 1, 2023, our stock traded as high as $28.17 per share and as low as $7.26 per share, and from January 2, 2023 to May 1, 2023, our stock price has ranged from $15.48 per share to $6.50 per share. The trading price of our securities could be volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. Any of the factors listed below could have a material adverse effect on your investment in our securities and our securities may trade at prices significantly below the price you paid for them. In such circumstances, the trading price of our securities may not recover and may experience a further decline.
Factors affecting the trading price of our securities:
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly financial results or the quarterly financial results of companies perceived to be similar to us;
changes in the market’s expectations about our operating results;
success of competitors;
our operating results failing to meet the expectation of securities analysts or investors in a particular period;
changes in financial estimates and recommendations by securities analysts concerning us or the market in general;
operating and stock price performance of other companies that investors deem comparable to us;
our ability to develop product candidates;
changes in laws and regulations affecting our business;
commencement of, or involvement in, litigation involving us;
changes in our capital structure, such as future issuances of securities or the incurrence of additional debt;
the volume of shares of our securities available for public sale;
any major change in our board of directors or management;
sales of securities convertible into shares of our capital stock by us;
sales of substantial amounts of Common Stock by our directors, executive officers or significant stockholders or the perception that such sales could occur; and
general economic and political conditions such as recessions, interest rates, fuel prices, international currency fluctuations and acts of war or other armed conflict or terrorism.
Broad market and industry factors may materially harm the market price of our securities irrespective of our operating performance. The stock market in general and The Nasdaq Global Select Market in particular have experienced price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of the particular companies affected. The trading prices and valuations of these stocks, and of our securities, is not predictable. A loss of investor confidence in the market for battery company stocks or the stocks of other companies which investors perceive to be similar to us could depress our stock price regardless of our business, prospects, financial conditions or results of operations. A decline in the market price of our securities also could adversely affect our ability to issue additional securities and our ability to obtain additional financing in the future.
Furthermore, short sellers may engage in manipulative activity intended to drive down the market price of target company stock. We have in the past been the subject of a short seller report containing certain allegations against us. While we reviewed the allegations in such report and believe them to be unsubstantiated, we may in the future become subject to additional unfavorable reports, which may cause us to expend a significant number of resources to investigate such allegations and may lead to increased volatility in the price of our Common Stock.
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If securities or industry analysts do not publish or cease publishing research or reports about us, our business, or our market, or if they change their recommendations regarding our securities adversely, the price and trading volume of our securities could decline.
The trading market for our securities is influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts may publish about us, our business, our market, or our competitors. If any of the analysts who currently cover us change their recommendation regarding our stock adversely, or provide more favorable relative recommendations about our competitors, the price of our securities would likely decline. If any analyst who currently cover us were to cease coverage of us or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline. If we obtain additional coverage and any new analyst issues, an adverse or misleading opinion regarding us, our business model, our intellectual property or our stock performance, or if our operating results fail to meet the expectations of analysts, our stock price could decline.
The future sales of shares by existing stockholders may adversely affect the market price of our Common Stock.
Sales of a substantial number of shares of our Common Stock in the public market could occur at any time. If our stockholders sell, or the market perceives that our stockholders intend to sell, substantial amounts of our Common Stock in the public market, the market price of our Common Stock could decline. As of May 1, 2023, we have outstanding a total of 158,160,110 shares of Common Stock. All of our outstanding shares are eligible for sale in the public market, other than shares and options held by directors, executive officers, and other affiliates that are subject to volume limitations under Rule 144 of the Securities Act, various vesting agreements, and shares that must be sold under an effective registration statement. Additionally, the shares of Common Stock subject to outstanding options and restricted stock unit awards under our equity incentive plans and the shares reserved for future issuance under our equity incentive plans will become eligible for sale in the public market upon issuance, subject to applicable insider trading policies.
To the extent our Private Placement Warrants are exercised, additional shares of Common Stock will be issued, which will result in dilution to the holders of Common Stock and increase the number of shares eligible for resale in the public market. Sales, or the potential sales, of substantial numbers of shares in the public market by the selling security holders, could increase the volatility of the market price of Common Stock or adversely affect the market price of Common Stock.
A market for our securities may not continue, which would adversely affect the liquidity and price of our securities.
The price of our securities may fluctuate significantly due to general market and economic conditions and an active trading market for our securities may not be sustained. In addition, the price of our securities can vary due to general economic conditions and forecasts, our general business condition and the release of our financial reports. If our securities are not listed on, or for any reason become delisted from, The Nasdaq Global Select Market and are quoted on the OTC Bulletin Board, an inter-dealer automated quotation system for equity securities that is not a national securities exchange, the liquidity and price of our securities may be more limited than if we were quoted or listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market or another national securities exchange. You may be unable to sell your securities unless a market can be established or sustained.
There can be no assurance that we will be able to comply with the continued listing standards of The Nasdaq Global Select Market.
If The Nasdaq Global Select Market delists our securities from trading on its exchange for failure to meet the listing standards, we and our stockholders could face significant material adverse consequences including:
a limited availability of market quotations for our securities;